Showing posts with label DIGITAL. Show all posts
Showing posts with label DIGITAL. Show all posts

Electronics Digital control system applications

Circuit digital control system applications schematics Circuit Electronics,
Digital Control System is a branch of the control system with continuous time processes in the region associated with the digital controller as the controller of the control elements that control systems and computing discrete time. Depending on requirements, a digital controller can be shaped microcontroller and ASIC to a standard desktop computer. Because the digital computer system is discrete, then the Laplace transform is used in the control system is replaced with the Z-transform. Therefore, you must understand about the concept of continuous time and discrete time concept.


Digital Control system applications
Flow Chart - Digital Control system applications

Digital computer also has a limited precision (See quantization) extra care needed to ensure that errors in the coefficients, A / D conversion, D / A conversion, etc. do not produce unwanted effects or planned.

The application of digital control can easily be done when used in a feedback form. Since the creation of the first digital computer in the early 1940s the price of digital computers has dropped significantly. The reason this is one of the many reasons for the application of digital control systems for the control of the control system. Other reasons:

Flexibile: easy to configure and reconfigure through software
* Scalable: can be set up programs tailored to the limits of memory or storage space at no extra cost
* Adaptable: program parameters can be changed with the times
* Static operation: digital computers are much more susceptible to environmental conditions rather than of capacitors and inductors

Schematics for digital control system applications Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Digital visitor counter

Circuit digital visitor counter schematics Circuit Electronics,
Digital visitor counter is a reliable circuit that takes over the task of counting Number of Persons/ Visitors in the Room very Accurately. When somebody enters into the Room then the Counter is Incremented by one and when any one leaves the room then the Counter is Decremented by One. The total number of Persons inside the Room is displayed on the seven segment displays.The microcontroller do the above job it receives the signals from the sensors, and this signals operated under the control of software which is stored in ROM.

Digital visitor counter
Digital visitor counter
Digital visitor counter
Digital visitor counter


Schematics for digital visitor counter Circuit Electronics
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Electronics RS232 to RS485 Circuit

Circuit RS232 to RS485 Circuit schematics Circuit Electronics,
The new archetypal of RS485 advocate overcomes the RTS controlled botheration accomplished by our chargeless design. However, to do that requires a microprocessor, so there is a greater complication to the design. We advertise this unit, although currently we are attached our sales to barter who can pay by coffer alteration – which in absoluteness is bounded Australian companies. 

This architecture has been almost agitation free, and if you crave quantities we can acclimate the adapter pinout to clothing your appliance – about again the accessory will no best fit the simple little D25 case in which you see it pictured.

Click image to view larger RS232 to RS485 Circuit

* Data (vs RTS) controlled – does not rely on PC handshake timing
* DB25 RS232 connector compatible with PC
* TxD and RxD translated from RS232 to RS485
* Direction of transmission controlled by Data
* Handshake loop the PC connection so it works with all software
* RS485 signals output on D9 male with lots of Ground pins
* Indicator LED(s) to show communications traffic
* Line powered – powered by RS232 handshake lines
* RS485 Termination resistor not included
* Pullup/Pulldown resistors on RS485 to establish line-idle condition
* Baud rate is dipswitch selectable 1200 – 115.2k

Schematics for RS232 to RS485 Circuit Circuit Electronics
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Electronics DVD Player Circuits

Circuit DVD Player Circuits schematics Circuit Electronics,
However, if this is your aboriginal activity with an HC908 MCU, it is simpler to alpha from a allotment with the user adviser already programmed and known-good hardware, as the bargain M68DEMO908QT4 amateur kit.
gambar skema rangkaian dvd

A QT dent programmed with a tiny user-monitor allows the user to amount appliance programs, abode breakpoints and watch variables with about no aerial for the affairs running. ICD approach requires aloof one pin (PTA0) for abstracts transfer, a pushbutton to accumulate PTA2 ashore during reset, and a atomic interface for the PC consecutive port: see [3] [4] for a ambit schematic (compatible with the DVD-thermometer) and abundant programming explanations.

A actual advantageous affection of the QT MCU is accouterments abutment for one-pin ICD (in-circuit debug), authoritative an adversary accidental for best developers.

The ambit will not add aloof addition cable to the AV tangle: it is array powered. Four AA beef accumulation a absolute of 6 volts. Notably, a voltage regulator is unnecessary, but if you feel afflictive powering chips abutting to their best tolerable voltage you can consistently add one. I begin an electrolytic capacitor an two clarify capacitors are abundant to accommodate apple-pie power.

Timing attention is important to get actual alien ascendancy waveforms: the 1% blueprint for the centralized oscillator is not far from the accurateness of bowl resonators, which are frequently active in best alien controls.

With aloof eight genitalia and a battery, the accouterments can hardly be simpler. Ambit access is a aftereffect advancing beeline from the akin of affiliation of its capital components.

The temperature sensor IC is either a DS1621 or DS1631 (Maxim). This 8-pinner includes a complete agenda temperature sensor/thermostat with I2C output. With the adapted commands, the temperature can be apprehend from the consecutive interface with a affirmed accurateness of 0.5 °C, and a resolution of up to 0.1°C. It does not crave calibration, which is advantageous because you can assurance your thermometer after messing with ice and baking water.

Its pin 3 can assignment as a thermostat, but this affection is bare in this application. Pins 5…7 actuate the low $.25 of the accessory I2C abode (up to 8 sensors can be affiliated in alongside on the aforementioned I2C bus); ambience the access as apparent configures the accessory to acknowledge at abode 0×90.

The MCU is the Motorola MC68HC908QT4, a tiny 8-pin accessory with 4 kB of beam and 128 bytes of RAM. A nice appropriate of the QT is that all of its pins (except power) can be acclimated as I/O, as able displace is affirmed by agency of centralized brown-out circuitry, and a flash-calibrated centralized oscillator provides a analytic abiding alarm source.

Two I/O pins serve as I2C bus abstracts and clock. All QT pins affection programmable pull-ups, so alien resistors on the I2C bus are unnecessary.

Another I/O anchorage drives the IR LED (ports can antecedent up to 25 mA) through a accepted attached resistor. Peak accepted is set to 8 mA, abundant lower than a “real” alien control, because the accessory is advised to accomplish in abutting adjacency of the DVD player.

Rather, boundless LED ability may baffle with added IR accessories in the aforementioned location, e.g. air conditioners, TVs, VCRs, DVD players and others electronics appurtenances frequently begin in homes, offices and shops.

Schematics for DVD Player Circuits Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Microcontroller to RS-485 circuit

Circuit Microcontroller to RS-485 circuit schematics Circuit Electronics,
Microcontroller to RS-485 circuit | RS-485 bus can carry up to 256 transceiver modules and over long distances . This is a circuit for connect microcontroller with Rs-485 bus.
Max485
Max485 are low-power transceivers for RS-485 and RS-422 communication. Each part contains one driver and one receiver. Line Length vs. Data Rate The RS-485/RS-422 standard covers line lengths up to 4000 feet. For line lengths greater than 4000 feet, see Typical Applications The MAX481, MAX483, MAX485, MAX487–MAX491, and MAX1487 transceivers are designed for bidirectional data communications on multipoint bus transmission lines.

Microcontroller to RS-485 circuit
Microcontroller to RS-485 circuit diagrams
Features
- In μMAX Package: Smallest 8-Pin SO
- Slew-Rate Limited for Error-Free Data Transmission
- 0.1μA Low-Current Shutdown Mode
- Low Quiescent Current
- -7V to +12V Common-Mode Input voltage Range
- Three-State Outputs
- 30ns Propagation Delays, 5ns Skew
- Full-Duplex and Half-Duplex Versions Available
- Operate from a Single 5V Supply
- Allows up to 128 Transceivers on the Bus
- Current- Limiting and Thermal Shutdown for Driver Overload

Schematics for Microcontroller to RS-485 circuit Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Voltage-to-frequency converters LM231/LM331

Circuit Voltage-to-frequency converters LM231/LM331 schematics Circuit Electronics,
The LM231/LM331 family of voltage-to-frequency converters are ideally suited for use in simple low-cost circuits for analog-to-digital conversion, precision frequency-to-voltage conversion, long-term integration, linear frequency modulation or demodulation, and many other functions
Voltage-to-frequency converters LM231/LM331
Voltage-to-frequency converters LM231/LM331
Features Voltage-to-frequency converters LM231/LM331:
- Guaranteed linearity 0.01% max
- Improved performance in existing voltage-to-frequency
conversion applications
- Split or single supply operation
- Operates on single 5V supply
- Pulse output compatible with all logic forms
- Excellent temperature stability, ±50 ppm/°C max
- Low power dissipation, 15 mW typical at 5V
- Wide dynamic range, 100 dB min at 10 kHz full scale
- Wide range of full scale frequency, 1 Hz to 100 kHz
- Low cost
Schematics for Voltage-to-frequency converters LM231/LM331 Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Schematic diagram of a USB player

Circuit Schematic diagram of a USB player schematics Circuit Electronics,
Usb series player is an electronic device or electronic circuit that functions as an MP3 player that is stored on a storage device such as USB flash.
In this usb circuit using an IC as a modifier of digital voice data into analog so that it can be applied to a headphone, or again through the power amlplifier strengthened so that it can be heard through the speakers. IC used in this circuit using IC PCM2902 as a modifier of a digital data into analog data storage.


Below is a schematic diagram of a USB player.
USB mp3 player schematic
Schematic usb player

Schematics for Schematic diagram of a USB player Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Volt meters & ampere meter with PIC

Circuit Volt meters & ampere meter with PIC schematics Circuit Electronics,
Volt meters & ampere meter with PIC can be used to measure voltage and current simultaneously. The series of volt meters & ampere meter with PIC16F876A PIC is used as a data processor voltage and current are measured. 

This circuit uses the viewer in the form of 16 × 2 LCD used for the data menmpilkan voltage and current measurements. In the article volt meter and ampere meter with PIC are discussed kerannya limited to devices only. More detail can be seen from the image sequence volt meter and ampere meter with PIC below. 

The images of Volt Meter & Ampere Meter With PIC Circuit

Volt meters & ampere meter with PIC 


Schematics for Volt meters & ampere meter with PIC Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Doubler Digital Frequency circuit

Circuit Doubler digital Frequency circuit schematics Circuit Electronics,
Doubler digital Frequency circuit includes a simple and easy to understand. digital Frequency Doubler circuit application contained in the system electronics such as audio-producing organ, or keyboard. The function of this series digital Frequency Doubler for multiplying two input frequencies.

The process of multiplying 2 on scales in an organ in principle is like this series digital Frequency Doubler. Example of rising to a ringing tone DO RE then electronically technique in it is by multiplying the two frequency bands such as this series digital Frequency Doubler.
Digital Frequency Doubler.

Schematics for Doubler digital Frequency circuit Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Programming Learning MCS51

Circuit Programming Learning MCS51 schematics Circuit Electronics,
Programming Learning MCS51
Learning Programming MCS51 becomes mandatory we learn if we want to use the MCS51. In the first part of this Learning Programming MCS51 we will learn together about the basic programming language MCS51 microcontroller. Where to program MCS51 outline there are 2 core parts of pemrogramanya language is "Words Work" and "Object". In the article Programming MCS51 this first part we will study first the "verb" is a command group Peng-copies of data, the command group arithmetic and logic command group.


Reference to DATA IN PROGRAMMING MCS51
Data can be in many different places, thus known a few ways to describe the data (in English often referred to as 'Addressing Mode'), among others, as follows:

The mention of constant data (immediate addressing mode): MOV A, # $ 20. Constant data is data that was in the instructions. Examples of this instruction has the data meaning a constant $ 20 (as a constant data marked with '#') on-copy it into the accumulator A. What needs to be properly addressed in this order is the number $ 20 is part of the instruction.
Reference to data directly (direct addressing mode), this method is used to refer to data residing in memory by calling the memory number where the data are: MOV A, $ 30. Examples of these instructions have the meaning of data in the memory number $ 30 in-copy it to the accumulators.
At first glance these same instructions to the instruction constant data above, the difference above instructions using the '#' which marks the $ 20 is a data constant, whereas in this instruction because there was no sign '#' then $ 30 is a number from memory.

The mention of indirect data (indirect addressing mode), this method is used to refer to data residing in memory, if memory data storage is changing its location so that the memory number is not called directly but in-'titip' her into another register : MOV A, @ R0.
In this instruction versatile R0 register is used to record the number of memory, so that this instruction has a memory meaning that the number recorded in the contents of R0-copy it into the accumulator A.

Sign '@' is used to mark the memory number stored in R0.

Compare this with the instruction memory number directly mention above, in this instruction first memory numbers are stored in R0 and R0 appoint a role which memory is used, so that if the value of R0 change the designated memory will also be changed as well.

In this instruction registers R0 functioning multipurpose container for the address register (indirect address register), other than all-purpose registers R0 R1 can also be used as a container for the address register.

Reference to data in the register (register addressing mode): MOV A, R5. This instruction has the meaning of data in all-purpose register R5 is copy it into the accumulator A. This instruction makes all-purpose registers R0 to R7 as a place to store data that is very practical that it works very fast.
The data referred to in the discussion above all in the data memory (including all-purpose registers are also located in data memory). In writing the program, often required standard table that is stored along with the program. Tables of this kind is really a data residing in program memory!
For this purpose, MCS51 have any mention of data in memory means programs conducted by indirect (indirect addressing code mode): MOVC A, @ A + DPTR.

Notice in this MOV instruction is replaced with MOVC, the additional letter C is meant to distinguish that this instruction is used in the program memory. (MOV without the letter C means that the instruction used in the data memory).

Sign '@' is used to mark A + DPTR is used to indicate the number of contents in-memory copy it to the accumulator A, in this case the value stored in the DPTR (Data Pointer Register - 2 bytes) plus the value stored in accumulators A (1 byte) is used to refer to the program memory numbers.

'Verb' in AT89Cx051
Overall AT89Cx051 have as many as 255 kinds of instruction, which was formed by combining the 'verb' and objects. "The verb 'is the group discussed the following:

PENG GROUP-COPY-DATA AN MCS51
Basic code for this group are MOV, abbreviation of MOVE, which means to move, though more correct to say this command have meaning copying the data. This can be explained the following: after the instruction MOV A, R7 done, accumulators A and all-purpose register R7 contains the same data, originally stored in R7.

MOV command is distinguished according to the type of memory AT89Cx051. This command is on the memory data is written into MOV, for example:


MOV A, $ 20

MOV A, @ R1

MOV A, P1

MOV P3, A

To use the program memory, this command is written into MOVC, there are only 2 types of wear MOVC instructions, namely:


MOVC A, @ A + DPTR; DPTR as register indirect

MOVC A, @ A + PC, PC as the register indirect


In addition, there is also known MOVX command, the command that is used for external data memory (X singkatakan from External). This command is only available to the MCS51 family members who have an external data memory, for example AT89C51 and so forth, and certainly not known by the group that tidam AT89Cx051 have external data memory. There are only 6 kinds of wear MOVX instruction, these instructions are:


MOVX A, @ DPTR

MOVX A, @ R0

MOVX A, @ R1

MOVX @ DPTR, A

MOVX @ R0, A

MOVX @ R1, A



GROUP ARIMATIK (ADD, ADDC, SubB, DA, MUL and DIV)
ADD and ADDC command

The contents of accumulators A plus the number 1 byte, the sum will be collected back in the accumulator. In this operation Carry bit (C flag in the PSW - Program Status Word) serves as a reservoir overflow of the sum. If the sum of the abundance (a value greater than 255) will carry bit value '1 ', if not Carry bit value '0'. ADDC same with ADD, only in bits Carry ADDC value in the previous process involved summed together.

Numbers 1 byte is added to the accumulator, can be derived from a constant, from the all-purpose register, memory data from memory number is called directly or indirectly, as shown in the following example:

ADD A, R0; register versatile

ADD A, # $ 23; a constant

ADD A, @ R0; no memory indirect

ADD A, P1; no direct memory (port 1)




ORDERS IN PROGRAMMING SubB MCS51
The contents of Accumulator A less the number 1 byte follows with Carry bit value, the reduction will be accommodated again in the accumulators. Carry bits in this operation also serves as a reservoir overflow of the reduction. If the reduction is abundant (score less than 0) bits Carry would be worth '1 ', if not Carry bit value '0'.

SubB A, R0; A = A - R0 - C

SubB A, # $ 23; A = A - $ 23

SubB A, @ R1

SubB A, P0


DA command

DA command (Decimal Adjust) is used after the command ADD, ADDC, or SubB, used to convert 8-bit binary value stored in the accumulator into 2 pieces decimal number, each consisting of 4-bit binary value.

MUL AB ORDERS IN PROGRAMMING MCS51
8-bit binary number in accumulator A is multiplied by an 8-bit binary number in register B. The result of multiplication of binary 16-bit, 8 bit binary number that greater weight be accommodated in the register B, while the other 8 bits are accommodated in the smaller weight accumulator A.

OV bit in the PSW (Program Status Word) is used to mark the result of multiplying the existing value in register B. OV bit will be worth '0 'if register B is worth $ 00, if not worth OV bit '1'.

MOV A, # 10

MOV B, # 20

MUL AB

DIV AB ORDERS IN PROGRAMMING MCS51
8-bit binary number in accumulator A is divided by an 8-bit binary number in register B. The result of the division of 8-bit binary numbers stored in the accumulator, while the rest of the division of 8-bit binary number stored in register B.

OV bit in the PSW (Program Status Word) is used to mark the value before the division that exists in the register B. OV bit will be worth '1 'if register B originally worth $ 00.

GROUP LOGIC (ANL, ORL and XRL) IN PROGRAMMING MCS51
This command group used to perform logic operations MCS51 microcontroller, logic operations can be done is the AND operation (operation code ANL), OR operation (operation code ORL) and the Exclusive-OR operation (XRL operation code).

The data used in this operation can be data that is in the accumulator or data that are in-memory data, this is a little different with arithmetic operations that must be actively melihatkan accumulators.

Operating results are accommodated in the first data source.

AND logic operation is widely used to me '0' a few specific bits of an 8-bit binary number, the way to forming an 8-bit binary numbers as a data-ANL constant in a number of origin. Bit-'0' want in a represented by '0 'in constant data, while other bits given the value '1', eg
Instructions ANL P1, #% 01111110 will result in bit 0 and bit 7 of Port 1 (P1) value '0 'while the other bits remain unchanged in value.

OR logic operation is widely used to me '1' a few specific bits of an 8-bit binary number, the way to forming an 8-bit binary numbers as constant data in a number-ORL origin. Bit-'1' want in a represented by '1 'in constant data, while other bits given the value '0', eg
Instructions ORL A, #% 01111110 will result in bit 1 to bit 6 of the accumulator value '1 'while other bits remain unchanged in value.

Exclusive-OR logic operation is widely used to reverse the value (complement) some particular bits of an 8-bit binary number, the way to forming an 8-bit binary numbers as constant data in a number-XRL origin. Bit you want behind-the value represented by '1 'in constant data, while other bits are the value '0', eg
Instructions XRL A, #% 01111110 will result in bit 1 to bit 6 of the accumulator turned value, while other bits remain unchanged in value.

Schematics for Programming Learning MCS51 Circuit Electronics
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Electronics ADC 0804 Microcontroler Interface Engineering

Circuit ADC 0804 Microcontroler Interface Engineering schematics Circuit Electronics, Microcontroller Interface Engineering With ADC 0804
In ADC 0804 interface techniques with microcontrollers are pin-pin control must be controlled if we want to use the ADC with the microcontroller, there is value addition refferensi voltage to be supplied in 0804 ADC interface with a microcontroller, for example, we use the 0804 ADC (8 bit), if we give refferensi voltage 2.55 volts then we will get the increase of 1 bit to change 10 mVolt. Please note that the 0804 ADC pin on the leg that is form Vref Vref / 2, so to get a 10mV resolution is necessary for setting Vref / 2 equal to 1.275 V


The interface circuit microcontroller with ADC 0804



Mechanical interface microcontroller with ADC 0804
The steps in accessing data from the ADC 0804 by the microcontroller sebgai follows;

Enable ADC with signal 0 at the foot of Chip Select.
Give commands from conversion by providing a low pulse to the foot of the ADC Write narrow
Wait for the ADC issued a signal 0 from his leg INT
Give a moment of time delay for data from the ADC is correct
Give the read command by giving the signal 0 at the foot of ADC Read
Give a moment of time delay
Now data from the ADC is ready for use and if the microcontroller.

Schematics for ADC 0804 Microcontroler Interface Engineering Circuit Electronics
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Electronics 2 Transistor Line Follower Robot

Circuit 2 Transistor Line Follower Robot schematics Circuit Electronics,
Make a line follower robot can be done with two transistors. Line Follower Robot series is one of the two transistors contor robot line follower circuit is in Bagun with two NPN transistor and the motor driver as well as processing of sensor signals.


In the circuit of line follower robot consists of two parts of the same, only different functions for the motor driver the right and left. sensor circuit of line follower robot uses the LDR and LED. LDR sensor sensitivity can be set with the VR 10 is mounted in series with the LDR. For more details, see the following figure.

Line Follower Robot series 2 Transistor


The working principle of the motor driver circuit between the right and left together, when the LDR get the reflection of light from the LED LDR resistance will decrease and make the transistor saturation and motor gets supply and rotates so that the robot moves forward. So at the moment is not the case then the motor did not get a supply, for example, only one sensor is exposed line and make the LDR did not receive the reflected light is then Motr in the stationary and the other motor rotates and makes the LDR are back in the reflection of light and the robot moves forward again.

Line Follower Robot


Schematics for 2 Transistor Line Follower Robot Circuit Electronics
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Electronics 74LS247 7 Segment Display Circuit

Circuit 74LS247 7 Segment Display Circuit schematics Circuit Electronics,
The displayor using a 7 segment display in electronic device applications is drain port of a microcontroller or data that would point in the show, especially when the data would be displayed more than 1 digit. necessary path to control the resources of each 7 segment and the path to input data on the 7 segment. 


Series Display 7 Segment 4 Digit Multiplex is a way to save the port or microcontroller data path that will be displayed. Series Display 7 Segment 4 Digit Multiplex uses BCD to 7 segment decoder 74LS247 BCD to encode data from the data that will be displayed, then for each resource viewer 7 segment using the set of transistors as electronic switches. Current flowing in the viewer in a series of 7 segment Display 7 Segment 4 Digit Multiplex is in limiting use yag resistor in series pairs in each collector transistor.


Image Series Display 7 Segment 4 Digit Multiplex


Configuration circuit components 7 Segment 4 Digit Display Multiplex
The legs LT, RBI, RBO in this circuit is not connected (logic high) is meant to display data from the seven segment according to data from the microcontroller. Resistors are mounted a series of LED is used as a barrier for current flow that flows through the LED does not exceed the maximum allowable current that is equal to 20 mA.

Schematics for 74LS247 7 Segment Display Circuit Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Atmel microcontroller-Easy Downloader Circuit

Circuit Atmel microcontroller-Easy Downloader Circuit schematics Circuit Electronics,
Easy Downloader Circuit
Atmel microcontroller series AT89Cxx51 Easy Downloader is one of the downloader that is often used to write data to program the Atmel microcontroller AT89CXX51. Easy Downloader AT89Cxx51 ATMEL microcontroller is using the serial port as a channel of communication with the computer. 



Easy Downloader ATMEL Microcontroller AT89Cxx51 can be used to program Atmel AT89CXX51 in parallel. Atmel microcontroller series AT89Cxx51 Easy Downloader is quite simple to make your own because the components necessary to membutanya not complex. Atmel microcontroller series AT89Cxx51 Easy Downloader do not support the serial programming microcontrollers ISP. In the article Easy Downloader ATMEL Microcontroller AT89Cxx51 only displays images Easy Downloader Microcontroller series from Atmel AT89Cxx51 only and are simple.

Schematics for Atmel microcontroller-Easy Downloader Circuit Circuit Electronics
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Electronics AT89C2051 microcontroller circuit

Circuit AT89C2051 microcontroller circuit schematics Circuit Electronics,
Real time controller AT89C2051
Real time controller is a device used to exercise control over household device continuously ongoing and scheduled. The series of Real Time Controllers with microcontroller AT89C2051 which dituls in this article is a tool that can do that serve targeted. The series of Real Time Controller with Microcontroller AT89C2051 Atmel AT89C2051 uses a data processor and controller as device installed. 


In the application directly devices requires a separate interface from a wide range of Real Time Controllers with this AT89C2051 microcontroller. When will connect the device with the AC power source to use interface optocoupler (MOC) or solid state relay. Devices that can be connected with the series of Real Time Controller with Microcontroller AT89C2051 include lights, water machines, fans, electronic gate. The series of Real Time Controllers with this AT89C2051 microcontroller to control a height of water level, controlling the flame lights the scheduled SCARA and censored.

Specifications Series Real Time Controller with AT89C2051 Microcontroller
The series of Real Time Controller with Microcontroller AT89C2051 uses a computer to perform serial communication settings via computer. The series of Real Time Controller with Microcontroller AT89C2051 has 6 units of output channels that can be independently controlled depending on the program induced in the tool. Output in the series of Real Time Controller with AT89C2051 microcontroller requires an interface to deal with equipment that will be in control.

Schematics for AT89C2051 microcontroller circuit Circuit Electronics
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Electronics SMS Remote controller circuit

Circuit SMS Remote controller circuit schematics Circuit Electronics,
SMS Remote controller is a device used to control a device remotely using SMS through GSM mobile phones. Process control equipment with a series of AVR ATTiny To SMS Remote Controller can be used to control life and death of these equipment will provide information on the status of replies to our phone in return successful command execution. 
Equipment can be controlled by a series of AVR ATTiny To SMS Remote Controller include lights, water pumps, garage doors, gates and much more. AVR series ATTiny To SMS Remote controller uses the module-47 Sony ericson GM as recipient and sender of the SMS module. Then to the SMS data processor on a series of AVR ATTiny To SMS Remote controller is using AVR microcontroller ATTiny 2313.


Series AVR ATTiny To SMS Remote Controller

SMS Remote controller circuit Click to view larger. 

AVR circuit this part ATTiny To SMS Remote Controller
AVR series ATTiny To SMS Remote controller uses the AVR attiny2313 with 4MHz clock frequency, GSM Module GM trnceiver 47 Sony ericson, SIM Card, 4 relays and an IC regulator. ATTiny AVR microcontroller 2313 can work well on the voltage 2.7 VDC - 5.5 VDC for working with the frequency at 10MHz bahwah. 

The set of AVR ATTiny In SMS Remote Controller To make use of this equalizer from the batteries 3.3 VDC. Connection using a SIM Card SIM Card Holder which is connected to the module GM-47, AVR series ATTiny To SMS Remote Controller works with communication between AVR ATTiny and GM-47 module at 9600bps. In a series of AVR ATTiny To SMS Remote controller is equipped with LED D6 as an indicator of the data interconnect GM-47 module with cellular operators where this LED will light continuously when not apat network and will be lit by flashes when a signal from the operator.

Specifications AVR series ATTiny To SMS Remote Controller


  • 4 Relay for ON / OFF electronic devices
  • 8 input lines for reading in a normal switching
  • LED indicators signal operator
  • SMS command with password, so only the owner can operate

Schematics for SMS Remote controller circuit Circuit Electronics
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Electronics ADC 207 Flash Converting

Circuit ADC 207 Flash Converting schematics Circuit Electronics,
Flash Converting - ADC 207
ADC 207 is the first to use Flash Converting An Advanced High Speed ​​VLSI 1.2 micron CMOS process. The process that is able to do the ADC 207 as mentioned earlier is very great and makes the ADC 207 is unique. The speed of the process of this ADC has a good linearity and have a stable temperature. ADC 207 has a lower power consumption is 250 mW.
ADC is working with +5 VDC voltage source and at a frequency of 20 MHz. ADC 207 has a small sampling time is 12nS, thus making the ideal sampling results. ADC 207 has 128 features auto balanced comparators with each conversion that serves to offset temperature and dynamic effects that exist. Resistor ladder in the ADC 207 has a mid point that is connected to an external voltage source and function in the conversion of 7-bit linearity. ADC 207 has 3 levels of output that is easy to connect it with external components.

ADC 207 Architecture

Feature ADC 207

7-bit flash A / D Converter
Sampling frequency of 20 MHz
Low power consumption (250mW)
VCC 5 VDC
1.2 micron CMOS technology
7 bits with 3 levels of output gates and overflow bits

Schematics for ADC 207 Flash Converting Circuit Electronics
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Electronics USB SPDIF DAC with IC PCM 2902

Circuit USB SPDIF DAC with IC PCM 2902 schematics Circuit Electronics,
The tool that I made and I discuss in this article I give the name USB SPDIF DACEvery word in the name corresponds to the function of the tool that I made this.

USB, this device serves to take the music information in digital form from a computer via the USB port
SPDIF, this tool can output digital music information received through the USB port, through the SPDIF output terminal that is also present in this device, so if you have a DAC that does not have a USB input, you can still use and do not need to buy a new DAC that has an input USB.
DAC, this tool can convert the digital signals derived from the USB port, an analog signal, which you can connect to the amplifier to the ahirnya you can hear the speaker

Scheme of the USB DAC can be seen in Figure 1 below.
Click to view larger. | Figure 1

As you can see on the schematic in Figure 1 above, which is the heart of the circuit is IC USB DAC PCM2902 made ​​by Texas Instrument, other than that I also added a digital SPDIF output isolation transformer on from this series. 2902 PCM encoding decoding work on the principle that generally abbreviated as word CODEC. 
The new circuit will work when the USB input port terminal in the circuit connected to the computer, at this voltage 5V on the USB port of any computer will be triggering the circuit to begin work, and vice versa when the computer is turned off then the circuit will be in standby mode to wait until there is more tension 5V from USB port of computer. 
When the received voltage is 5V USB port the computer then the circuit will begin to receive the digital data files during the grace period of 1 ms, all data received during the period of time of 1 ms is called a frame, the data in the first frame is stored in a memory buffer that is in the PCM2902, then the circuit will start the second frame as well as long lead times for 1mS, 1mS a second after the first data from the file will be converted into analog signals for analog terminal is then removed through out the pin 15 and 16 of the PCM2902, other than that this digital signal simultaneously will also excreted through the DOUT terminal pin 25 of the PCM2902 DAC to be connected to older products that do not have a USB input terminal.In addition to functioning as a DAC, PCM2902 actually also has other functions such as setting volume level and ADC, but the circuit that I developed is only aimed for the ADC and the conversion from USB to SPDIF.

Proposed equalizer For USB SPDIF DAC
Power Supply that I use in this project using the configuration has been proven able to tame the hum in the tube 26, the equalizer has karakater very stable, low noise and low impedance, but complicated to make, so for the purposes of this project I recommend another series that is not as complicated Heater equalizer 26, but the quality is still better than most of the equalizer kit used in the DAC in general, Figure 2 below is the recommendation equalizer for USB DAC this project.
Click to view larger. | Figure 2

Power supply circuit in Figure 2 above is composed of four main parts, namely
 1. Diode bridge and capacitor input filter
 2. TL431 as the reference voltage
 3. OP Amp OP27 as the error amplifier
 4. BD139 transistor as a pass transistorThis configuration is basically the general configuration of a linear regulator series, very much the regulator IC using this configuration, but the circuit in Figure 2 above has several advantages that are not owned by the regulator circuit in the form of ICa) high stability, since it uses a reference voltage source of good quality is TL431, and therefore not in a package with a pass transistor, the heat of the pass transistor can not seep into the source of reference voltage and makes it unstable, this sort of thing happens in IC voltage regulator.b) Using the Op Amp high quality, which in this case OP27, so it is not easy to oscillate as the OpAmp used in the regulator IC.c) If there is a chance you could also replace the TL431 or OP27 Op Amp voltage source and another that is expected to be better than either of these components.
Series of the finished PCB, top view

IC PCM2902


Schematics for USB SPDIF DAC with IC PCM 2902 Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Create a Digital Volume Control Circuit

Circuit Create a digital Volume Control Circuit schematics Circuit Electronics,
This series is the volume of the digital amplifier That is used on or tone control. This series ic type using DS1669 digital Pot IC specifically for this volume match. a series of settings used at the middle-class amplifier That small powerless under 50 watts.volum11components: C1 = 0.1uf Ceramic, IC = IC DS1669 digital Pot, S1 / S2 = digital swicthOr you can use the series to this one:volum2The Work: The digital volume control IC uses 9.
Click to view larger.


Required to operate the series voltage regulator is 12 volts. IC1 (555) is very good to work as a flip-flop. Frequency or period can be determined with selecting value of resistor R44, R45 is combined with a capacitor C6. In this series has a 0.3 second period.IC2 is used to Decrease or increase of the calculation. In the series of this mode is used to raise up and down mode is used to Decrease the volume. 
While IC4 and IC3 has a 16-channel, analogue multiplexers, while working as an analog switch. IC3 is used as in the series of level indicator while IC4 is used as potentiometer.After the next power in the on-it, and the switch S1 is pressed to reset. When the switch S2 is pressed, the IC2 and the balance in the form of output legs responded B, C, and D in CMOS IC2. Output B, C and D control line inputs IC2 and IC3, and the chosen one, the 16-channel output, by turning on the analogue.In this series, IC4 is used as the potentiometer is connected to the That resistor 15 (R9 to R23) each of the 16 input pins and resistor / capacitor combination with C2, C3 and R7 to the output. 
Switch S2 is used to raise and switch S3 is used to Decrease the volume.Electrolyte capacitor of 1uF (C4) is used to Prevent the occurrence of noise. While the R8 and the resistor R6 is used to Prevent Tension on the half-supply voltage in order to avoid distortion of the audio signal coming from the preamplifier. Meanwhile, capacitor C2, C3 and resistor R7 is provided to filter the audio. Happy work, hopefully successfully. 

 COMPONENT LIST:

R1, 2, 3, 4: 560R R16: 1,5KR45: 150KR5: 680RR17: 3,3KC1: 0,01uFR6, 8: 100KR18: 5,6KC2, 3: 100nFR7: 1MR19: 8,2KC4: 1uF/50VR9: 10RR20: 15KC5: 100nFR10: 12RR21: 33KIC1: 555R11: 42RR22: 56KIC2: 74193R12: 100RR23: 1,5MIC3: CD4067R13: 220RR24…R39: 560RIC4: CD4067R14: 470RR40..R43: 4,7KIC5: 7805R15: 820RR44: 330KIC6 N1-N4): 7407
Schematics for Create a digital Volume Control Circuit Circuit Electronics
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Electronics System circuit (not) Minimum (Evaluation Board) AT89C2051 and AT89C4051

Circuit System circuit (not) Minimum (Evaluation Board) AT89C2051 and AT89C4051 schematics Circuit Electronics, Maybe we are more familiar with the term Minimum System AT89C2051 circuit, but this time I present a circuit which is not only a series of Minimum System AT89C2051 but more than that.
System circuit (not) Minimum (Evaluation Board) AT89C2051 and AT89C4051

The circuit is more deserves to be called Evaluation Board AT89C2051 and AT89C4051. Some of the advantages of circuit Minimum System AT89C2051 / AT89C2051 and AT89C4051 Evaluation Board which I was present this time, hardware-hardware support below:


RS-232 interface, DB-9
Header for LCD display
I2C, PCF8574 I / O extender
AT24C04, I2C EEPROM
Schematics for System circuit (not) Minimum (Evaluation Board) AT89C2051 and AT89C4051 Circuit Electronics
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