Showing posts with label Power Supply Circuit. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Power Supply Circuit. Show all posts

Electronics Power Supply Failure Alarm

Circuit equalizer Failure alarm schematics Circuit Electronics,
Most of the circuit equalizer failure alarm circuits require additional or external power supply. However, this circuit requires no additional power supply. The circuit uses a voltage of 5 volts to 15 volts. To adjust the voltage of this circuit, first connect the power source (5 to 15V) and change the position of potentiometer VR1 until the buzzer buzzer On to Off position.

If the equalizer fails, resistor R2 will bias the transistor and the base will turn on the buzzer. Here is a picture series of equalizer failure alarm :

 <a href=' supply' title='power supply circuits'>equalizer</a> Failure <a href='' title='alarm circuits'>alarm</a>
 Power Supply Failure alarm  Circuit

Schematics for equalizer Failure alarm Circuit Electronics
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Electronics 12 Volt DC Power Suplly Adaptor

Circuit 12 Volt DC Power Suplly Adaptor schematics Circuit Electronics,
This series of images you can apply to make an adapter or power suplly with the output voltage (V DC output 12V). equalizer in the only protected by a capacitor as a safety if the equalizer is connected to the load on the circuit.

So I recommend using 35V capacitor with a minimum specification. The security of equalizer to power the more we can menggunakkan transistor TIP, but I have not discussed it. To the diode bridge can be compiled from the 4 then you solder the diode bridge rectifier into one or you can buy a bridge rectifier so that the comb-shaped (sideways) or the box. At least I would suggest using a diode bridge 1 Ampere, in a series of adapters, the bigger the better course of ampere diode current in the circuit. Diodes like toll roads, and current as a car passing by. The larger and the width of the existing highway, the faster the flow of runs and through the circuit.

For the circuit equalizer 5 V, you can change the volt regulator on the type 7805 and 7905. This application applies equally in this series. For variations such as fuse or circuit switch on / off you can try it yourself.
Transformer 18 V + - 1 A minimum CT
Minimum of 35 V + Capacitor

Schematics for 12 Volt DC Power Suplly Adaptor Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Adjustable Switching Regulator Circuit with LM2576

Circuit Adjustable Switching regulator Circuit with LM2576 schematics Circuit Electronics,
The Adjustable Switching regulator Circuit with LM2576 are monolithic integrated circuits that provide all the active functions for a step-down (buck) switching regulator, capable of driving 3A load with excellent line and load regulation. These devices are available in fixed output voltages of 3.3V, 5V, 12V, 15V, and an adjustable output version.

LM2576 IC Package
LM2576 IC Package

Requiring a minimum number of external components, these regulators are simple to use and include internal frequency compensation and a fixed-frequency oscillator. The Adjustable Switching regulator Circuit with LM2576 offers a high-efficiency replacement for popular three-terminal linear regulators. It substantially reduces the size of the heat sink, and in some cases no heat sink is required.

Adjustable Switching <a href='' title='regulator circuits'>regulator</a> Circuit with LM2576
IC Switching regulator Circuit with LM2576

A standard Adjustable Switching regulator Circuit with LM2576 of inductors optimized for use with the LM2576 are available from several different manufacturers. This feature greatly simplifies the design of switch-mode power supplies.

Other features include a guaranteed ±4% tolerance on output voltage within specified input voltages and output load conditions, and ±10% on the oscillator frequency. External shutdown is included, featuring 50 μA (typical) standby current. The output switch includes cycle-by-cycle current limiting, as well as thermal shutdown for full protection under fault conditions.

Features Adjustable Switching regulator Circuit with LM2576 :
- 3.3V, 5V, 12V, 15V, and adjustable output versions
- Adjustable version output voltage range,1.23V to 37V
- Guaranteed 3A output current
- Wide input voltage range, 40V up to 60V for HV version
- Requires only 4 external components
- 52 kHz fixed frequency internal oscillator
- TTL shutdown capability, low power standby mode
- High efficiency
- Uses readily available standard inductors
- Thermal shutdown and current limit protection
- P+ Product Enhancement tested
Schematics for Adjustable Switching regulator Circuit with LM2576 Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Troubleshooting STR IC Regulator Power Supply

Circuit Troubleshooting STR IC regulator equalizer schematics Circuit Electronics,
A. Unable to start.
Can be caused by:
  • No start-up voltage supply Vcc or a voltage less than 16V
  • Electrolityc Capacitors supply voltage Vcc filter dry.

2. Led indicator blinking
If the supply voltage Vcc examined rocking. This is because the regulator of life and death because OVLO work., Die-protectionist regulators and auto start life over and over. If it is turned off Electrolityc Capacitors  usually still keep the rest of the cargo.
Can be caused by:

  • Electrolityc Capacitors supply voltage Vcc filter on a pin-4 dry. Replace with a value equal to or slightly larger. - triger UVLO
  • input filter capacitor on pin-1 feed dry behind the declining value - triger OLP
  • Rectifier diode of the switching transformer is damaged (sometimes when examined with avo-meter looks like a still good)
  • cause the supply voltage Vcc drops of the switching transformer (UVLO)
  • Part damage or broken lines on the feedback circuit of the voltage regulator through B to photocoupler - triger OVP
  • Electrolityc Capacitors dry filter voltage B - triger OVP
  • One of the output voltage of the switching transformer secondaries there is a short (over load) - triger OLP
  • Soft start capacitor value decreases - triger OLP

3. Noise arising (noise)
Can be caused by:

  • Transformer windings slack.
  • If there are ceramic capacitors - can sometimes cause interference noise due to its characteristic piezoelectrik like crystal resonator. Replace with film capacitors.

4. When the st-by normal stress. But when the power is on the regulator directly off protectionism no voltage on the secondary this part. Electrolityc Capacitors  are still storing charge.
Can be caused by:

  • Sensor OVP small value resistor on pin-2 to the ground so that the value of delayed triger to OLP or OCP.
  • Regulator IC is damaged

Note: Be careful when the regulator is not working. Because of Electrolityc Capacitors  may still have a charge when turned off.

Schematics for Troubleshooting STR IC regulator equalizer Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Workings of STR IC Regulator Power Supply

Circuit Workings of STR IC regulator equalizer schematics Circuit Electronics,
The meaning STR in this article for example is a Sanken regulator series and Fairchild series STR-F/G/W KA05Q Is an ic Quasy Resonant Flyback (QRF) Swiching regulator comprising (a) control IC and (b) power MOSFETs that are packed into a single unit. The regulator is designed so that only requires a few external components.

How it works :

A. UVLO (under voltage lock out)

Regulators will start working when the voltage Vcc start-up on pin-4 reaches 16V. Once the equalizer voltage Vcc further work will be reimbursed through a switching transformer supplied from a diode rectifier. At the time the circuit was working when the voltage Vcc is less than 15V, the regulator controls will still work. regulator will stop working (protectionism) if the supply voltage Vcc drops to less than 11V.

2. Feedback control (pin-1)

Workings of <a href='' title='regulator circuits'>regulator</a> ic STR
PWM regulators work using the system, wherein the output voltage B + to stable controlled by the feedback circuit of the output voltage B + >>> >>> photo-coupler pin-1. A capacitor mounted on the pin-1 is used to prevent noise disturbance if anyone does not interfere with the working system.

3. Soft start (pin-5)

When the power is turned on first, then the circuit has not been working behind the Uman because there is no output voltage B +. This causes a heavy current on the MOSFET start. To prevent this, the regulator is equipped with soft start circuit internally and an external filter kapasitr.

If the equalizer is used to monitor for example, the frequency of the regulator needs to be synchronized. External synchronization signal can be input through pin-5's

4. Protectors

Regulators are equipped with all sorts protector.

  • Over-current protector (OCP) or Over Load protector (OLP). For example, if there is damage to flyback or def yoke, it will cause the load voltage B + over. If there is such a case the regulator will die protectionism so that IC is not damaged. For over current sensor is a resistor with a small value that is placed on pin-2 to the ground.

  • Short protector. If the output voltage B + short, the regulator turns off protectionism.

  • Over-voltage protectors (OVP). Regulators are not equipped with a surge protector so if the feedback path disconnected can cause the output voltage of the transformer switching regulator power up or damaged .. With OVP protectionist regulator will die if the voltage supply Vcc pin-4 rise above 22.5v.

  • Thermal protector. Regulators will stop working if the temperature reaches 140 degrees Celsius.

6. Auto start.

Regulators will start automatically if the auto turns itself (protectionism) after OVP or OCP

read also ->>>> Troubleshooting STR IC regulator Power Supply

Schematics for Workings of STR IC regulator equalizer Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Power supply with driver TEA1507

Circuit equalizer with driver TEA1507 schematics Circuit Electronics,
Power supply with driver TEA1507 is mostly used by TV branded PHILIPS. equalizer has an efficiency rate of up to 90% - thus requiring less cooling, as well as stand-by power required is less than 1 watt.

Power Supply with TEA driver is equipped with a variety of surge protector that has a high reliability - not easily damaged if any part of a damaged equalizer circuit and power transistor or FET heat is not easily damaged. equalizer circuits are dapatapat working on ac input voltage between 85 up to 275v. The way it works with the driver circuit equalizer TEA 1507 is quite simple, so easy tracking of damage to the circuit.

Power supply with driver TEA1507

The picture above is the basic equalizer circuit with TEA1507

Schematics for equalizer with driver TEA1507 Circuit Electronics
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Electronics How Regulator with 2 Photocoupler

Circuit How regulator with 2 Photocoupler schematics Circuit Electronics,
Working of regulator with 2 Photocoupler that is :
  • Photocoupler N901 - used as a coupling-off control on the regulator by mikrokontrol. Which is set high and low voltage B + (st-by at the B + voltage is low). Control of the pin-37 POWER mikrokontrol → V610 → VD913 V908 → N901.
  • Photocoupler N903 - used to control on-off the regulator of X-ray circuit protector. X-ray protector circuit of flyback → VD451 → VD452 → SCR VS472. If the flyback voltage regulator over the job will automatically be turned off by N903
  • To disable the X-ray circuit protector, it can be temporarily removed photocoupler N903 first. In normal conditions the voltage at the transistor V474 should be zero.

Regulator Schematics with 2 photcoupler
Regulator Schematics
Trobelshuting there is no voltage for 5v st-by on the secondary :

Regulator Schematics 5 V
  1. Disable by removing the first circuit protectors N903
  2. Check the voltage of 300V
  3. Check all transistors
  4. Check the start voltage of 300V by R909 &gt;&gt; R906 to the base of transistor power regulator
  5. Check the feedback C910 &gt;&gt; R904 (to oscillate)

Schematics for How regulator with 2 Photocoupler Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Type of UPS | Uninterruptible Power Supply

Circuit Type of UPS | Uninterruptible equalizer schematics Circuit Electronics,
UPS design of the model is divided into several types that produce different performance characteristics:

A. Standby

2. Line Interactive

3. Double Conversion On-Line

4. Delta Conversion On-Line

Standby UPS types
This type is commonly used by home users for the Presidency with their PC. UPS to be able to do this type of filtration against power failures and flow management, in addition to design efficient, small size and inexpensive.

Line Interactive UPS types

Type of UPS | Uninterruptible <a href=' supply' title='power supply circuits'>equalizer</a> UPS is the type most often used in small business unit, web developer, and a number of servers located in government departments. Because, in addition to having high levels of reliability, this type also have the ability to adjust the voltage that is sufficient


UPS has an inverter is always connected to the output of the UPS system to convert the power from batteries into AC. In normal circumstances, the inverter will perform battery charging. While in a state of power outages, Transfer switch will close and drain power from the batteries to the UPS output. Position that is always connected to the inverter output filter provides additional power. This makes the type of UPS is widely used for server and electrical conditions are not too good.

Double Conversion type UPS On-Line

This type is most common for UPS with power more than 10kVA. These types have in common with the type of Standby. Only this type has a power source located on the inverter, not the AC power source. In this type, the main electricity supply interruption will not trigger a transfer switch for the incoming AC power to the central input to charge the batteries that provide power to the inverter located at the output. Therefore, when the AC power is disconnected, the flow of energy will be transferred immediately without taking a break when the transfer occurs. This type of UPS above shows the performance of the average. Can be said of this type of approach the ideal of a UPS, unfortunately this type of heat is high enough.

UPS type Delta Conversion On-Line

Almost the same as the Double Conversion type, type Delta used to always supply voltage Inverter. When the equalizer is interrupted, this type do the same with Double Conversion type. Delta Conversion has two functions, the first is to control the input power characteristics. While the second function is to control the input current to direct the process of charging the battery system. The thing to remember is to minimize this type of energy is wasted. In addition, it has a high compatibility to various types of generators and reduce the need for the use of cables.

Schematics for Type of UPS | Uninterruptible equalizer Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Parts of the UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)

Circuit Parts of the UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) schematics Circuit Electronics,
Uninterruptible Power Supply
UPS is basically composed of three main components, namely:
1) Rectifier-Charger
This section is used to transfer circuit and battery charging. Rectifier-charger circuit block is going to supply the power needed by the inverter under full load and at that time to maintain the charge in the battery. Besides these blocks must have the ability to drain the power output of 125-130%.

Characteristics of the batteries also need to be taken into account in its charger circuit design because if a rechargeable battery with a current that exceeds the capacity limit will be able to shorten the life of the battery. Usually for a battery charging current to the UPS is 80% of current conditions issued by the batteries at full load.
Limitation of a UPS system is good by the standards of NEMA - National
Electical Manufacturer Association - is able to provide 100% power continuously (continuous load) and 2 hours at 125% load without a decrease in performance (damage). The battery can still be categorized as unfit for use if the condition is still capable of providing 100% power for 1 hour if the time of filling for 8 hours (determined by the manufacturing

The quality of the inverter is a determinant of the quality of power generated by a UPS system. inverter function to change the DC voltage of the rectifier-charger circuit into AC voltage signal in the form of a sine wave formation and after going through the filter circuit. The resulting output voltage must be stable both voltage amplitude and frequency, low distortion, there are no voltage transients.
In addition, the inverter system needs a feedback circuit (feedback) and the regulator circuit to maintain constant voltage to be obtained.

3) switch Shifters (Transfer switches)
Transfer switch is divided into two types, namely electromechanical and static. Electromechanical switch uses relays to get one of the supply voltage terminal and the other from the UPS system. Static switch system using semiconductor components, such as SCR.
The use of SCR would be better because of the removal operation is performed with the SCR takes only 3 to 4 ms, while the electromechanical switch is about 50 to 100 ms.
The use of UPS is done by connecting the UPS to the AC input and output PLN UPS to the load. Most UPS are used to supply the computer, because if the source of PLN suddenly dies, then the data being processed is not lost but is still in the back-up by UPS, so there's still time to save data.

Schematics for Parts of the UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Power Supply with tube

Circuit equalizer with tube schematics Circuit Electronics,
Power supply with Z2C tubes are designed specifically to provide power supply voltage to the EL-34 tube amplifier push-pull in the previous article. equalizer with Z2C tube to tube power amplifier is made with a tube rectifier Z2C. Just as the equalizer for power amplifier tube earlier, equalizer also uses a filter 3 levels with kapsitor electrolyte. Circuit equalizer with tube rectifier Z2C can give +210 VDC output voltage. A complete range of equalizer for power amplifier tube can be seen in thethe following figure .

Power Supply with tube
Power Supply with tube

Z2C on the rectifier tube in equalizer with tube above require a supply voltage for the filaments taken from the other side of the transformer secondary. equalizer with Z2C tube is a equalizer that dapt used as a substitute equalizer for power amplifier tubes .

Schematics for equalizer with tube Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Dual Power Supply Circuits

Circuit Dual equalizer Circuits schematics Circuit Electronics,
This is a bench top power supply that can be used to power circuits or devices during development work in the lab. More specifically it is an adjustable, tracking, dual rail supply which means there are two supply voltages, one positive, one negative, that are adjusted by a common potentiometer such that supply voltages are equal in magnitude. It is capable of supplying up to +/- 15V DC at up to 1A. This is sufficient for the majority of small signal electronic projects.

Dual Power Suplly Circuit diagram.

Dual <a href=' supply' title='power supply circuits'>equalizer</a> Circuits
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Power Supply circuit above shows the circuit layout for this project. A centre tapped transformer (TR1) is used with two 12V secondary windings with its centre tap tied to ground. This allows positive and negative voltages to be generated with respect to the central ground. Rectification follows based upon the bridge rectifier (BR1) and smoothing capacitors (C1, C2, C4 and C5).

Two linear regulators are used, an LM317 on the positive side and an LM337 on the negative side. These regulators keep the supply voltage constant for a varying load up to a load current of around 1A. The voltage adjustment is achieved through potentiometers RV1 and RV2 in the positive side of the circuit. The clever part of this circuit comes from the mirroring of the positive voltage adjustment to the negative side via the op-amp U2 to give the circuit its tracking nature.

The op-amp U2 has its positive input tied to ground via a 4K7 resistor. This means that, providing there is negative feedback around the op-amp, the op-amp will endeavour to make its negative input also at ground or 0V. The negative feedback is arranged by the output of the op-amp U2 driving the Adjust pin of the negative regulator U3 and by resistors R3 and R4. The op-amp U2 sets the voltage on the adjust pin of U3 such that the voltage at its negative input is 0V. Also as R3 and R4 are equal, the positive and negative regulated voltages must then be equal in magnitude.

An analogue meter is driven from the positive side to give an indication of the voltage setting. Two switches are used to allow the positive and negative supplies to be turned on/off independently and there are also two LED acting as indicators.

Dual equalizer Construction

This equalizer circuit was built up on Veroboard as it is quite simple to build. Heatsinks can be mounted to the two regulators to improve the current drive capability. The transformer and circuit were mounted inside a wooden box. If a metal box is used the box must be connected to mains earth to prevent a shock hazard. Figure 2 shows a picture of the finished unit. It should be noted that this box is rather shabby and the author has been meaning to improve it for a while but it does do the job nicely.

Schematics for Dual equalizer Circuits Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Adapter, power supply and charger circuit

Circuit Adapter, equalizer and charger circuit schematics Circuit Electronics,
Basically adapter, equalizer and charger circuit has a similar construction which consists of a transformer, rectifier (rectifier) and smoothing the voltage. For there is usually an additional equalizer voltage stabilizer of voltage regulator IC LM series 78XX or 79XX .

Below is a schematic circuit adapter, power supply, or battery charger (for gadgets, mobile phones, MP4player, smartphone) that is equipped with a 5V voltage stabilizer:

adapter, <a href=' supply' title='power supply circuits'>equalizer</a> and charger circuit
Adapter, equalizer and charger circuit

Schematics for Adapter, equalizer and charger circuit Circuit Electronics
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Electronics LM4651 and LM4652 170W power amplifier

Circuit LM4651 and LM4652 170W power amplifier schematics Circuit Electronics, 170 Watt power amplifier is a power amplifier that is built by IC LM4651 and LM4652.

Part of this power amplifier driver using the LM4651 IC designed specifically for the purpose of the class AB amplifier driver with short circuit protection feature, containing under voltage, thermal shutdown protection and standby functions. Section 170 Watt power amplifier using LM4651 IC with a MOSFET power amplifier is equipped with temperature sensors that will be used by IC LM4651 as controlnya thermal signal. IC IC LM4651 and LM4652 are designed specifically to each other in pairs to create a class AB power amplifier with protection features are detailed. Detailed series of 170 Watt power amplifier can be seen in thethe following figure .
LM4651 and LM4652 170W power <a href='' title='amplifier circuits'>amplifier</a>

Power amplifier circuit requires supply voltages +22 V DC symmetrical 0-22V. Power amplifier with IC LM4651 and LM4652 are often used in portable HiFi systems such as powered speakers, power subwoofer and car audio power Booter. D1, D2, D3 and D4 in series 170 watt power amplifier with LM4651 and LM4652 is a 22V zener diode.
Schematics for LM4651 and LM4652 170W power amplifier Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Tube Power Amplifier 35W Push Pull

Circuit Tube Power amplifier 35W Push Pull schematics Circuit Electronics,
Tube Power amplifier 35W Push Pull is made using a tube and eventually compiled configuration push-pull amplifier. Tube Power amplifier 35W Push Pull tube til it using EL-34 as the amplifier end.
In the power amplifier that is made with a tube at a glance looks simple because the use of active components that are not complex. It should be noted that the use of tubes in Tube Power amplifier 35W Push Pull require a high voltage supply, therefore in the process of making and finishing must be careful of high voltage and radiation. Detailed series of Tube Power amplifier 35W Push Pull can be seen in the following figure.

Tube Power amplifier Series 35W Push Pull

Sign Components Tube Power amplifier 35W Push Pull
R1 = 470K 0.5 W
R2-5 = 2K2 0.5W
R3 = 150K 0.5W
R4 = 220K 0.5W
R6-10 = 56K 0.5W
R7 = 3.9K 0.5W
R8 = 220R 0.5W
R9 = 1M 0.5W
R11 = 39K 1W
R12-23 = 180K 0.5W
R13-21 = 820K 0.5W
R14-22 = 5K6 0.5W
R15-20 = 680K 0.5W
R16-19 = 100K 0.5W
R17-18 = 3K3 1W
R24 = 470R 2W
TR1-2 = 470R 1W Variable (adj. 270Ω)
C1-3-6-7 = 0.1uf 630V
C2 = 220pF 600v
C4-5 = 16uF 550V
C8-9 = 0.1uF 630V
C10-14 = 0.47uF 630V
C11-13 = 25uF 40V
V1 = E80CC
V2 = E80CC
V3-4 = EL34
Rectifier tube = Z2C
Audio Transformer for T1 = 2x EL34 Push Pull
Power amplifier with tubes often become the choice for a small slewrate so that the resulting audio quality is guaranteed. Tube Power amplifier 35W in the circuit that is required to supply a high DC voltage is +220 VDC ddengan order to work properly.

Schematics for Tube Power amplifier 35W Push Pull Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Flash Lights with HT2014L

Circuit Flash Lights with HT2014L schematics Circuit Electronics, Flash Lights with HT2014L

This scheme is almost the same with a flash light with LM3909. In this scheme only requires IC HT2014L as a leader, and a resistor and LED. For voltage here need ration power around 4.5 V. You can apply this series to a wider scale in comparing the use IC LM3909. For the scheme are below:

flash lights circuit

Schematics for Flash Lights with HT2014L Circuit Electronics
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Electronics 12V to 220V converter circuit

Circuit 12V to 220V converter circuit schematics Circuit Electronics,
This DIY 12V to 220V voltage converter is build with CMOS 4047 that is the main component of this small voltage converter that transforms a 12V DC into 220V AC. 4047 is used as a astable mutivibrator, at pins 10 and 11 will have a symmetrical rectangular signal wich is amplified b 2 Darlington transistors and finally reach the secondary coil of mains transformer ( 2x10V / 60VA ).

At the main voltage converter transformer terminals it will be 220V. With the help of P1 the output frequency can be adjusted between 50Hz to 400Hz. Although this is not part of any professional dc ac converters it can be used quite effective on some home appliances.
For more DC to AC voltage converters check the related posts.

Check out the tags for more 12 Volts to 220 Volts converters.

source [link

Schematics for 12V to 220V converter circuit Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Rangkaian Power Supply for tube amplifier

Circuit Rangkaian equalizer for tube amplifier schematics Circuit Electronics,
Power supply for EL-34 tube is specially designed for the purposes of equalizer at the push-pull amplifier with EL-34 tube as in article 35 Watt Tube Power amplifier Push Pull before.
Power supply for EL-34 tube amplifier is made with transformers CT and 2 pieces diode as rectifier. Mechanical filters are applied in the equalizer uses 3 levels. equalizer for tube power amplifier can deliver output voltages +220 VDC. Circuit details can be seen in the following figure.

The above equalizer circuit has a high output voltage so that need to be considered in the manufacture and perakitanya because electricity can tesengat (stun). equalizer For Tube Power amplifier With Diode EL-34 was created specifically for the power amplifier tube push pull EL-34.

Schematics for Rangkaian equalizer for tube amplifier Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Toggle Switch with IR

Circuit Toggle switch with IR schematics Circuit Electronics,
Toggle switch in this article is a series of toggle switches that are controlled by infrared light. The series toggle switch is made from a combination of data flip-flop CD4013 2 units. Receiver circuit of the infrared light signals arranged with infrared receiver as found on television remote receiver. Infrared signal from remote is used as clock signals and data to the data flip-flop first. then the second flip-flop data set as a toggle flip-flop toggle the output signal is used to drive the relay. for more details can be seen in thethe following image .

Toggle <a href='' title='switch circuits'>switch</a> with Infra Red IR

Series Toggle switch With Infra Red (IR) that is required to supply voltage range of 12VDC and the output of Toggle switch With Infra Red (IR) is dapt used to turn on the lights or other electronic devices with DC or AC voltage source. Series Toggle switch With Infra Red (IR) was isolated from the load that is placed for use as the final relay.

source [link]

Schematics for Toggle switch with IR Circuit Electronics
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Schematics LED Volt Meter Circuit LM324

It's a very useful circuit which when installed on your car gives the voltage of you car battery in a LED dot display form.The meter circuit is based on four comparators made of quad op amp LM324.

The inverting inputs of IC are kept at at reference voltages 5.6V,5.2V,4.8V,4.4V respectively at pins 2,6,9,13 by resistors ,R3,R4,R5,R6.The battery voltage is directly fed to the non inverting input through the voltage divider arrangement using R1 and R7.When there is variation in the input supply the out put of each op amp goes high accordingly as they are wired as voltage comparators.The corresponding LED glows.

LED Volt Meter Circuit Notes

  • IC LM 324 consists of4 op amps in one package , so power supply is common and is shown once (pin 4 and 11).
  • To setup , connect the circuit to battery ,adjust R6 so that required voltages are available at the inverting pins( refer description to get the required voltages).
  • Fix the LED’s on the dash board and mark the voltages near to it as shown in circuit diagram.The gadget is now ready.

Source: Car battery Volt meter circuit using LED
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Schematics Battery Booster Circuit

The inspiration for this design came from the author’s experience with a mini model helicopter (from Silverlit). This particular model has a hand-held transmitter powered by six AA batteries which acts as a charging station in between flights to recharge the helicopter’s LiPo battery.

Even alkaline batteries become discharged relatively quickly because of the energy demands of the helicopter. Replacing the alkaline cells with six rechargeable NiMH batteries brought its own problems; the cell voltage is around 1.4 V after recharging but this quickly levels-out to 1.2 V once you begin drawing energy and this proved to be too low to recharge the helicopter battery. What is needed here is a voltage converter design small enough to fit into the space taken up by an AA battery which pumps up the voltage from the (now five rechargeable cells) up to the level produced by six alkaline batteries.

The author was not satisfied with the most simple design solution to the problem; it would be more useful if this booster cell could be used in any battery compartment irrespective of the number of cells. The number of batteries (n) would then be replaced by n–1 rechargeable cells (with one cell position taken up by the   booster) giving an output voltage the same as if n primary cells were fitted.

The circuit described here can be used in applications requiring four to ten primary cells. With the booster fitted, only three to nine rechargeable cells would be required. The use of (more bulky) electrolytic capacitors with a 35 V rating would allow the booster to be used in applications of up to 20 batteries.

In principle almost any switching regulator IC can be used in this way. The power output from this circuit with a LT1172 regulator is around 500 mA but it can be increased to 2 A for example by using the LT1170 instead.

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