Showing posts with label power supply. Show all posts
Showing posts with label power supply. Show all posts

Circuit Mini Alarm Schematic Diagrams

Circuit Mini Alarm schematics Circuit Electronics,
Suitable for doors windows, Portable anti-bag-snatching unit

This circuit, enclosed in a small plastic box, can be placed into a bag or handbag. A small magnet is placed close to the reed switch and connected to the hand or the clothes of the person carrying the bag by means of a tiny cord. If the bag is snatched abruptly, the magnet looses its contact with the reed switch, SW1 opens, the circuit starts oscillating and the loudspeaker emits a loud alarm sound. A complementary transistor-pair is wired as a high efficiency oscillator, directly driving a small loudspeaker. Low part-count and 3V battery supply allow a very compact construction.


R1 = 330K
R2 = 100R
C1 = 10nF-63V
C2 = 100uF-25V
Q1 = BC547
Q2 = BC327
B1 = 3V battery or Two AA Cells in Series
SW1 = Read switch Small Magnet
SPKR = 8R Loudspeaker (See Notes)

  • The loudspeaker can be any type; its dimensions are limited only by the box that will enclose it.
  • An on-off switch is unnecessary because the stand-by current drawing is less than 20µA.
  • Current consumption when the alarm is sounding is about 100mA.
  • If the circuit is used as anti-bag-snatching, SW1 can be replaced by a 3.5mm mono Jack socket and the magnet by a 3.5mm. Mono Jack plugs having its internal leads shorted. The Jack plug will be connected to the tiny cord etc.
  • Do not supply this circuit at voltages exceeding 4.5V: it will not work and Q2 could be damaged. In any case a 3V supply is the best compromise.

Schematics for Mini Alarm Circuit Electronics
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Circuit Two-Tone Siren Using One IC Schematic Diagrams

Circuit Two-Tone Siren Using One IC schematics Circuit Electronics,
This circuit is intended for children fun, and can be installed on bicycles, battery powered cars and motorcycles, but also on models and various games and toys. With SW1 positioned as shown in the circuit diagram, the typical dual-tone sound of Police or Fire-brigade cars is generated, by the oscillation of IC1A and IC1B gates. With SW1 set to the other position, the old siren sound increasing in frequency and then slowly decreasing is reproduced, by pushing on P1 that starts oscillation in IC1C and IC1D.

The loudspeaker, driven by Q1, should be of reasonable dimensions and well encased, in order to obtain a more realistic and louder output. Tone and period of the sound oscillations can be varied by changing the values of C1, C2, C5, C6 and/or associated resistors. No power switch is required: leave SW1 in the low position (old-type siren) and the circuit consumption will be negligible.

One IC Two-Toness Siren Circuit diagram


R1 = 470K - 1/4W Resistors
R2 = 680K - 1/4W Resistor
R3 = 470K - 1/4W Resistors
R4 = 82K - 1/4W Resistor
R5 = 330K - 1/4W Resistor
R6 = 10K - 1/4W Resistor
R7 = 33K - 1/4W Resistor
R8 = 3.3M - 1/4W Resistor

C1 = 10µF - 25V Electrolytic Capacitors
C2 = 10nF - 63V Polyester Capacitors
C3 = 100nF - 63V Polyester Capacitor
C4 = 100µF - 25V Electrolytic Capacitor
C5 = 10µF - 25V Electrolytic Capacitors
C6 = 10nF - 63V Polyester Capacitors

D1 = 1N4148 - 75V 150mA Diodes
D2 = 1N4148 - 75V 150mA Diodes
D3 = 1N4148 - 75V 150mA Diodes

Q1 = BC337 - 45V 800mA NPN Transistor
P1 = SPST Pushbutton
B1 = 6V battery (4 AA 1.5V Cells in series)
IC1 = 4093 - Quad 2 input Schmitt NAND Gate IC
SW1 = DPDT switch
SPKR= 8 Ohm Loudspeaker
Schematics for Two-Tone Siren Using One IC Circuit Electronics
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Circuit Mains Supply Failure Alarm Schematic Diagrams

Circuit Mains Supply Failure Alarm schematics Circuit Electronics,
Whenever AC mains supply fails, this circuit alerts you by sounding an alarm. It also provides a backup light to help you find your way to the torch or the generator key in the dark. The circuit is powered directly by a 9V PP3/6F22 compact battery. Pressing of switch S1 provides the 9V power supply to the circuit. A red LED (LED2), in conjunction with zener diode ZD1 (6V), is used to indicate the battery power level.

Resistor R9 limits the operating current (and hence the brightness) of LED2. When the battery voltage is 9V, LED2 glows with full intensity. As the battery voltage goes below 8V, the intensity of LED2 decreases and it glows very dimly. LED2 goes off when the battery voltage goes below 7.5V. Initially, in standby state, both the LEDs are off and the buzzer does not sound. The 230V AC mains is directly fed to mains-voltage detection optocoupler IC MCT2E (IC1) via resistors R1, R2 and R3, bridge rectifier BR1 and capacitor C1.

Illumination of the LED inside optocoupler IC1 activates its internal phototransistor and clock input pin 12 of IC2 (connected to 9V via N/C contact of relay RL1) is pulled low. Note that only one monostable of dual-monostable multivibrator IC CD4538 (IC2) is used here. When mains goes off, IC2 is triggered after a short duration determined by components C1, R4 and C3. Output pin 10 of IC2 goes high to forward bias relay driver transistor T1 via resistor R7.

Relay RL1 energises to activate the piezo buzzer via its N/O contact for the time-out period of the monostable multivibrator (approximately 17 minutes). At the same time, the N/C contact removes the positive supply to resistor R4. The time-out period of the monostable multivibrator is determined by R5 and C2. Simultaneously, output pin 9 of IC2 goes low and pnp transistor T2 gets forward biased to light up the white LED (LED1).

Light provided by this back-up LED is sufficient to search the torch or generator key. During the mono time-out period, the circuit can be switched off by opening switch S1. The ‘on’ period of the monostable multivibrator may be changed by changing the value of resistor R5 or capacitor C2. If mains doesn’t resume when the ‘on’ period of the monostable lapses, the timer is retriggered after a short delay determined by resistor R4 and C3.

Schematics for Mains Supply Failure Alarm Circuit Electronics
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Circuit Laser Alarm Schematic Diagrams

Circuit Laser Alarm schematics Circuit Electronics,
This circuit is a laser alarm system like the one we see in various movies. It uses a laser pointer beam to secure your valuables and property. Essentially, when the beam gets interrupted by a person, animal or object, the resistance of a photodiode will increase and an alarm will be activated. The laser and the receiver can be fitted in same box, sharing a common power supply. As the receiver draws less than 10 mA on average, you’ll soon find that the laser is the most current hungry device! Mirrors are used to direct the beam in whatever setup you require. Examples of a passage and an area protected by the alarm are shown in the diagram.

In the circuit diagram we find a TL072 op-amp (IC1.A) configured as voltage comparator between the voltage reference provided by the adjustable voltage divider P1/R4 and the light-dependent voltage provided by the voltage divider consisting of photodiode D1 and fixed resistor R3. When the laser beam is interrupted, the voltage on comparator pin 2 drops below that at pin 3, causing the output to swing to (almost) the positive supply voltage and indicating an alarm condition. This signal can drive a siren, a computer or a light that hopefully will deter the intruder.

Alternatively it can be used to ‘silently’ trigger a more sophisticated alarm. Resistor R2 provides some hysteresis to prevent oscillation when the two comparator input voltages are almost equal. Capacitor C1 makes the circuit immune to short, accidental interruptions of the beam, e.g., by flying insects. If you want your circuit to have faster responses you can reduce its value to 1 µF. The operation of the circuit is illustrated by the waveform diagram, which also proves the hysteresis action that sets an upper and a lower threshold on the input voltage. You can also see the delay introduced by capacitor C1.

The circuit is simple and could be assembled on a piece of breadboard. After assembling the circuit and testing it, you should mount it in a black box that has just a small hole. You may decide to put the laser in the same box but only if you are sure there is no way the photodiode can ‘see’ the laser beam directly. The small hole should be filled with a black drinking straw so that only light from the direction of the laser beam can enter. With the appropriate setup of the box and the mirrors, the laser beam is so intense that even direct sunlight cannot affect the operation of the photodiode.

Schematics for Laser Alarm Circuit Electronics
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Circuit General-Purpose Alarm Schematic Diagrams

Circuit General-Purpose Alarm schematics Circuit Electronics,
The alarm may be used for a variety of applications, such as frost monitor, room temperature monitor, and so on. In the quiescent state, the circuit draws a current of only a few microamperes, so that, in theory at least, a 9 V dry battery (PP3, 6AM6, MN1604, 6LR61) should last for up to ten years. Such a tiny current is not possible when ICs are used, and the circuit is therefore a discrete design. Every four seconds a measuring bridge, which actuates a Schmitt trigger, is switched on for 150 ms by a clock generator. In that period of 150 ms, the resistance of an NTC thermistor, R11, is compared with that of a fixed resistor. If the former is less than the latter, the alarm is set off.

When the circuit is switched on, capacitor C1 is not charged and transistors T1–T3 are off. After switch-on, C1 is charged gradually via R1, R7, and R8, until the base voltage of T1 exceeds the threshold bias. Transistor T1 then comes on and causes T2 and T3 to conduct also. Thereupon, C1 is charged via current source T1-T2-D1, until the current from the source becomes smaller than that flowing through R3 and T3 (about 3 µA). This results in T1 switching off, so that, owing to the coupling with C1, the entire circuit is disabled. Capacitor C1 is (almost) fully charged, so that the anode potential of D1 drops well below 0 V. Only when C1 is charged again can a new cycle begin.

It is obvious that the larger part of the current is used for charging C1. Gate IC1a functions as impedance inverter and feedback stage, and regularly switches on measurement bridge R9–R12-C2-P1 briefly. The bridge is terminated in a differential amplifier, which, in spite of the tiny current (and the consequent small transconductance of the transistors) provides a large amplification and, therefore, a high sensitivity. Resistors R13 and R15 provide through a kind of hysteresis a Schmitt trigger input for the differential amplifier, which results in unambiguous and fast measurement results. Capacitor C2 compensates for the capacitive effect of long cables between sensor and circuit and so prevents false alarms.

If the sensor (R11) is built in the same enclosure as the remainder of the circuit (as, for instance, in a room temperature monitor), C2 and R13 may be omitted. In that case,C3 willabsorb any interference signals and so prevent false alarms. To prevent any residual charge in C3 causing a false alarm when the bridge is in equilibrium, the capacitor is discharged rapidly via D2 when this happens. Gates IC1c and IC1d form an oscillator to drive the buzzer (an a.c. type). Owing to the very high impedance of the clock, an epoxy resin (not pertinax) board must be used for building the alarm. For the same reason, C1 should be a type with very low leakage current. If operation of the alarm is required when the resistance of R11 is higher than that of the fixed resistor, reverse the connections of the elements of the bridge and thus effectively the inverting and non-inverting inputs of the differential amplifier.

An NTC thermistor such as R11 has a resistance at –18 °C that is about ten times as high as that at room temperature. It is, therefore, advisable, if not a must, when precise operation is required, to consult the data sheet of the device or take a number of test readings. For the present circuit, the resistance at –18 °C must be 300–400 kΩ. The value of R12 should be the same. Preset P1 provides fine adjustment of the response threshold. Note that although the prototype uses an NTC thermistor, a different kind of sensor may also be used, provided its electrical specification is known and suits the present circuit.

Schematics for General-Purpose Alarm Circuit Electronics
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Circuit A Hiqh Quality Headphone Amplifier Schematic Diagrams

Circuit A Hiqh Quality Headphone amplifier schematics Circuit Electronics,
Low distortion Class-B circuitry, 6V battery Operated

Some lovers of High Fidelity headphone listening prefer the use of battery powered headphone amplifiers, not only for portable units but also for home "table" applications. This design is intended to fulfill their needs. An improved output driving capability is gained by making this a push-pull Class-B arrangement. Output power can reach 100mW RMS into a 16 Ohm load at 6V supply with low standing and mean current consumption, allowing long battery duration.


P1 = 22K Potentiometer
R1 = 15K Resistor
R2 = 100K Resistor
R3 = 100K Resistor
R4 = 47K Resistor
R5 = 470R Resistor
R6 = 500R Resistor
R7 = 1K Resistor
R8 = 18K Resistor
R9 = 18K Resistor
R10 = 2.2R Resistor
R11 = 2.2R Resistor
R12 = 33R Resistor
R13 = 4.7K Resistor

C1 = 10uF-25V Capacitors
C2 = 10uF-25V Capacitors
C3 = 100nF-63V (PF)
C4 = 220uF-25V Capacitors
C5 = 100nF-63V (PF)
C6 = 220uF-25V Capacitors

Q1 = BC560C PNP Transistor
Q2 = BC560C PNP Transistor
Q3 = BC550C NPN Transistor
Q4 = BC550C NPN Transistor
Q5 = BC560C PNP Transistor
Q6 = BC327 PNP Transistor
Q7 = BC337 NPN Transistor

J1 = RCA audio Input Socket
J2 = 3mm Stereo Jack Socket
B1 = 6V battery Rechargeable
SW1=SPST Slide or Toggle switch

  • For a Stereo version of this circuit, all parts must be doubled except P1, SW1, J2 and B1.
  • Before setting quiescent current rotate the volume control P1 to the minimum, Trimmer R6 to maximum resistance and Trimmer R3 to about the middle of its travel.
  • Connect a suitable headphone set or, better, a 33 Ohm 1/2W resistor to the amplifier output.
  • switch on the supply and measure the battery voltage with a Multimeter set to about 10Vdc fsd.
  • Connect the Multimeter across the positive end of C4 and the negative ground.
  • Rotate R3 in order to read on the Multimeter display exactly half of the battery voltage previously measured.
  • switch off the supply, disconnect the Multimeter and reconnect it, set to measure about 10mA fsd, in series to the positive supply of the amplifier.
  • switch on the supply and rotate R6 slowly until a reading of about 3mA is displayed.
  • Check again the voltage at the positive end of C4 and readjust R3 if necessary.
  • Wait about 15 minutes, watch if the current is varying and readjust if necessary.
  • Those lucky enough to reach an oscilloscope and a 1 KHz sine wave generator can drive the amplifier to the maximum output power and adjust R3 in order to obtain a symmetrical clipping of the sine wave displayed.

Technical data:

Output power (1 KHz sine wave):
  • 16 Ohm: 100mW RMS
  • 32 Ohm: 60mW RMS
  • 64 Ohm: 35mW RMS
  • 100 Ohm: 22.5mW RMS
  • 300 Ohm: 8.5mW RMS
  • 160mV input for 1V RMS output into 32 Ohm load (31mW)
  • 200mV input for 1.27V RMS output into 32 Ohm load (50mW)
Frequency response @ 1V RMS:
  • Flat from 45Hz to 20 KHz, -1dB @ 35Hz, -2dB @ 24Hz
Total harmonic distortion into 16 Ohm load @ 1 KHz:
  • 1V RMS (62mW) 0.015% 1.27V RMS (onset of clipping, 100mW) 0.04%
Total harmonic distortion into 16 Ohm load @ 10 KHz:
  • 1V RMS (62mW) 0.05% 1.27V RMS (onset of clipping, 100mW) 0.1%
  • Unconditionally stable on capacitive loads

Schematics for A Hiqh Quality Headphone amplifier Circuit Electronics
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Circuit USB Powered Audio Power Amplifier Schematic Diagrams

Circuit USB Powered audio Power amplifier schematics Circuit Electronics,
This circuit of multimedia speakers for PCs has single-chip-based design, low-voltage power supply, compatibility with USB power, easy heat-sinking, low cost, high flexibility and wide temperature tolerance. At the heart of the circuit is IC TDA2822M. This IC is, in fact, mono-lithic type in 8-lead mini DIP package. It is intended for use as a dual audio power amplifier in battery-powered sound players.

Specifications of TDA2822M are low quiescent current, low crossover distortion, supply voltage down to 1.8 volts and minimum output power of around 450 mW/channel with 4-ohm loudspeaker at 5V DC supply input. An ideal power amplifier can be simply defined as a circuit that can deliver audio power into external loads without generating significant signal distortion and without consuming excessive quiescent current.

This circuit is powered by 5V DC supply available from the USB port of the PC. When power switch S1 is flipped to ‘on’ position, 5V power supply is extended to the circuit and power-indicator red LED1 lights up instantly. Resistor R1 is a current surge limiter and capacitors C1 and C4 act as buffers. Working of the circuit is simple. audio signals from the PC audio socket/headphone socket are fed to the amplifier circuit through components R2 and C2 (left channel), and R3 and C3 (right channel).

Potmeter VR1 works as the volume controller for left (L) channel and potmeter VR2 works for right (R) channel. Pin 7 of TDA2822M receives the left-channel sound signals and pin 6 receives the right-channel signals through VR1 and VR2, respectively. Ampl i f ied signals for driving the left and right loudspeakers are available at pins 1 and 3 of IC1, respectively. Components R5 and C8, and R6 and C10 form the traditional zobel network.

Assemble the circuit on a medium-size, general-purpose pcb and enclose in a suitable cabinet. It is advisable to use a socket for IC TDA2822M. The external connections should be made using suitably screened wires for better result.

Schematics for USB Powered audio Power amplifier Circuit Electronics
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Circuit High Power Headphone Amplifier Using BD139-40 Schematic Diagrams

Circuit High Power Headphone amplifier Using BD139-40 schematics Circuit Electronics,
Firstly, I'd like to stress that the intended use of this circuit is only one of many possible applications. Apart from the obvious usage as a headphone amplifier, the circuit can be used for a range of applications where a wide bandwidth low power amplifier is needed. Some of the options include ...
  • Reverb drive amplifier - ideal for low and medium impedance reverb tanks
  • High current line driver - suitable for very long balanced lines
  • Low power speaker amplifier - better performance than small integrated amps
  • ... and of course, a headphone amp.
In short, the amp can be used anywhere that you need an opamp with more output current than normally available. Since most are rated for around ±20-50mA, general purpose opamps are not suitable for driving long cables or anywhere else that a relatively high output current is needed.

As a headphone amplifier, this design is very similar to others on the ESP site, but the main difference is that this one (and P70) has been built and fully tested. The design is fairly standard, and every variation was checked out before arriving at the final circuit. A photo of the prototype is shown below, and at only 64 x 38mm (2.5 x 1.5 inches) it is very small - naturally, the heatsink is not included in the dimensions.

The amplifier is capable of delivering around 1.5W into 8 ohm headphones, and 2.2W into 32 ohms - this is vastly more than will ever be needed in practice. The use of a 120 Ohm output resistor is recommended, as this is supposed to be the standard source impedance for headphones. Unfortunately, many users have found that their 'phones perform better when driven from a low impedance source.
The circuit is based on an opamp, with its output current boosted by a pair of transistors. Distortion is well below my measurement threshold at all levels below clipping into any impedance. Noise is virtually non-existent - even with a compression driver held to my ear, I could barely hear any, and I couldn't hear any with headphones.

While it may be possible to build it using Veroboard or similar, there is a high risk that it will oscillate because of the very wide bandwidth of the amplifier. A capacitor may be added in parallel with R4 (L and R) to reduce the bandwidth if stability problems are encountered. Although I used an NE5532 opamp for the prototype, the circuit will also work with a TL072, but at reduced power. You may also substitute an OPA2134 or your favorite device, taking note of the following ...
opamp pinoutThe standard pinout for a dual opamp is shown on the left. If the opamps are installed backwards, they will almost certainly fail, so be careful.

The suggested NE5532 opamp was used for the prototype, and performance is exemplary. Devices such as the TL072 will be quite satisfactory for most work, but if you prefer to use ultra low noise or wide bandwidth devices, that choice is yours.

Construction is fairly critical. Because of the wide bandwidth of the NE5532 and many other audio grade opamps, the amplifier may oscillate (the prototype initially had an oscillation at almost 500kHz), so care is needed to ensure there is adequate separation between inputs and outputs. Even a small capacitive coupling between the two may be enough to cause problems.

As shown in the photo, this amplifier needs a heatsink. While it can operate without one at low power using high impedance headphones, you need to plan for all possibilities (after all, you may purchase low impedance 'phones sometime in the future). The heatsink does not need to be massive, and the one shown above is fine for normal listening levels. An aluminium bracket may be used to attach to the chassis - I recommend 3mm material. Note that the heatsink should always be earthed (grounded).

The output transistors must be insulated from the heatsink. Sil-Pads™ are quite suitable because of the relatively low dissipation, but greased mica or Kapton can be used if you prefer. If you use the suggested 3mm aluminium, you can drill and tap threads into the heatsink, removing the need for nuts.


Connect to a suitable power supply - remember that the supply earth (ground) must be connected! When powering up for the first time, use 56 ohm "safety" resistors in series with each supply to limit the current in case you have made a mistake in the wiring. These will reduce the supply voltage considerably because of the bias current of the output transistors.

If the voltage at the amplifier supply pins is greater than ±6V and the output voltage is close to zero, then the amplifier is probably working fine. If you have an oscilloscope, check for oscillation at the outputs ... at all volume control settings. Do this without connecting your headphones - if the amp oscillates, it may damage them.

Once you are sure that all is well, you may remove the safety resistors and permanently wire the amplifier into your chassis.

Schematics for High Power Headphone amplifier Using BD139-40 Circuit Electronics
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Circuit Guitar Control Schematic Diagrams

Circuit Guitar control schematics Circuit Electronics, Stand-alone, 9V battery powered unit, Three-level input selector, three-band tone control

This preamplifier was designed as a stand-alone portable unit, useful to control the signals generated by guitar pick-ups, particularly the contact "bug" types applied to acoustic instruments. Obviously it can be used with any type of instrument and pick-up. It features a -10dB, 0dB and +10dB pre-set input selector to adjust input sensitivity, in order to cope with almost any pick-up type and model. A very long battery life is ensured by the incredibly low current consumption of this circuit, i.e. less than 800µA.


P1,P2_________100K Linear Potentiometers
P3____________470K Linear Potentiometer
P4_____________10K Log. Potentiometer
R1____________150K 1/4W Resistor
R2____________220K 1/4W Resistor
R3_____________56K 1/4W Resistor
R4____________470K 1/4W Resistor
R5,R6,R7_______12K 1/4W Resistors
R8,R9___________3K9 1/4W Resistors
R10,R11_________1K8 1/4W Resistors
R12,R13________22K 1/4W Resistors
C1____________220nF 63V Polyester Capacitor
C2,C8___________4µ7 63V Electrolytic Capacitors
C3_____________47nF 63V Polyester Capacitor
C4,C6___________4n7 63V Polyester Capacitors
C5_____________22nF 63V Polyester Capacitor
C7,C9_________100µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitors
IC1___________TL062 Low current BIFET Dual Op-Amp
J1,J2__________6.3mm. Mono Jack sockets
SW1______________1 pole 3 ways rotary or slider switch
SW2______________SPST switch
B1_______________9V PP3 battery Clip for PP3 battery

Circuit operation:

IC1A op-amp is wired as an inverting amplifier, having its gain set by a three ways switch inserting different value resistors in parallel to R4. This input stage is followed by an active three-band tone control stage having unity gain when controls are set in their center position and built around IC1B.

Technical data:

Frequency response:
20Hz to 20KHz -0.5dB, controls flat.
Tone control frequency range:
±15dB @ 30Hz; ±19dB @ 1KHz; ±16dB @ 10KHz.
Maximum input voltage (controls flat):
900mV RMS @ +10dB input gain; 7.5V RMS @ -10dB input gain.
Maximum undistorted output voltage:
2.5V RMS.
Total Harmonic Distortion measured @ 2V RMS output:
<0.012% @ 1KHz; <0.03% @ 10KHz.
THD @ 1V RMS output:
less 0.01%
Total current drawing:
less 800µA.
Schematics for Guitar control Circuit Electronics
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Circuit Mini Audio Signal Generator Schematic Diagrams

Circuit Mini audio Signal Generator schematics Circuit Electronics,
A small audio test generator is very useful for quickly tracing a signal through an audio unit. Its main purpose is speed rather than refinement. A single sine-wave signal of about 1 kHz is normally all that is needed: distortion is not terribly important. It is, however, important that the unit does not draw too high a current. The generator described meets these modest requirements. It uses standard components, produces a signal of 899 Hz at an output level of 1 V r.m.s. and draws a current of only 20 µA. In theory, the low current drain would give a 9 V battery a life of 25,000 hours. The circuit is a traditional Wien bridge oscillator based on a Type TLC271 op amp. The frequency determining bridge is formed by C1, C2 and R1–R4. The two inputs of the op amp are held at half the supply voltage by dividers R3-R4 and R5-R6 respectively.

Resistors R5 and R6 also form part of the feedback loop. The amplification is set to about ´3 with P1. Diodes D1 and D2 are peak limiters. Since the limiting is based on the non-linearity of the diodes, there is a certain amount of distortion. At the nominal output voltage of 1 V r.m.s., the distortion is about 10%. This is, however, of no consequence in fast tests. Nevertheless, if 10% is considered too high, it may be improved appreciably by linking pin 8 of IC1 to ground. This increases the current drain of the circuit to 640 µA, but the distortion is down to 0.7%, provided the circuit is adjusted properly. If a distortion meter or similar is not available, simply adjust the output to 1 V r.m.s. Since the distortion of the unit is not measured in hundredths of a per cent, C1 and C2 may be ceramic types without much detriment. 

Schematics for Mini audio Signal Generator Circuit Electronics
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Circuit Three Channel Audio Mixer Circuit Schematic Diagrams

Circuit Three Channel audio Mixer Circuit schematics Circuit Electronics,
Three high/low-sensitivity switchable inputs

Although the modular Portable Mixer design available on these web pages has become a hit for many amateurs, some correspondents required a much simpler device, mainly for mixing mono signals. This design should fulfil their needs, featuring three inputs with switchable high/low sensitivity and unusual level-control circuits, providing high overload margins and low-noise figures, proportional to gain-level settings. Low current consumption due to a simple, five-transistor circuitry, allows the Mini Mixer to be powered by a common 9V PP3 battery for many hours.


P1 = 5K
P2 = 5K
P3 = 5K
R1 = 180K
R2 = 2M2
R3 = 750R
R4 = 1K
R5 = 15K
R6 = 220R
R7 = 1.5K
R8 = 820R
R9 = 150R
R10 = 100K
R11 = 180K
R12 = 2.2M
R13 = 750R
R14 = 1K
R15 = 180K
R16 = 2M2
R17 = 750R
R18 = 1K


C1 = 1µF-63V
C2 = 100µF-25V
C3 = 220µF-25V
C4 = 100µF-25V
C5 = 220µF-25V
C6 = 1µF-63V
C7 = 100µF-25V
C8 = 1µF-63V
C9 = 100µF-25V


Q1 = BC550C
Q2 = BC547
Q3 = BC557
Q4 = BC550C
Q5 = BC550C

Misc. Components

B1 = 9V PP3 battery
J1,J2,J3 = 3mm Mono Jack sockets
SW1,2,3,4 = SPST Toggle or Slider switches

  • When SW1, SW2 or SW3 are open the input sensitivity is suited to high-output devices like CD players, tuners, tape recorders, iPods, miniDisc players, computer audio outputs etc.
  • When SW1, SW2 or SW3 are closed the input sensitivity is suited to low-output, low-impedance moving coil or electret microphones.
  • Sometimes, the 750 Ohm value for R3, R13 and R17 resistors could be not easy to find. In this case, two 1K5 resistors wired in parallel can be used to replace each item.
  • To make a stereo mixer, all the parts must be doubled excepting R6, C3, C5, SW4 and B1.

Schematics for Three Channel audio Mixer Circuit Circuit Electronics
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Circuit Digital Volume Control Schematic Diagrams

Circuit Digital Volume control schematics Circuit Electronics,
Simple circuitry, Suitable for all kind of audio amplifiers

This circuit could be used for replacing your manual volume control in a stereo amplifier. In this circuit, push-to-on switch SW1 controls the forward (volume increase) operation of both channels while a similar switch SW2 controls reverse (volume decrease) operation of both channels. A readily available IC from Dallas semiconductor, DS1669 is used here.


J1 = RCA audio Input Socket
J2 = RCA audio Input Socket
C1 = 0.1uF-16V Ceramic Disc Capacitor
C2 = 0.1uF-16V Ceramic Disc Capacitor
C3 = 0.1uF-16V Ceramic Disc Capacitor
IC1 = DS1669 (is available from Dallas SCo.
SW1 = Momentary Push Button switch
SW1 = Momentary Push Button switch

  • Replaces mechanical variable resistors.
  • Electronic interface provided for digital as well as manual control.
  • Wide differential input voltage range between 4.5 and 8 volts.
  • Wiper position is maintained in the absence of power.
  • Low-cost alternative to mechanical controls.
  • Applications include volume, tone, contrast, brightness, and dimmer control.
  • The circuit is extremely simple and compact requiring very few external components.
  • The power supply can vary from 4.5V to 8V.
  • The input signal should not fall below -0.2 volts.

Schematics for Digital Volume control Circuit Electronics
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Circuit Speed-Limit Alert Schematic Diagrams

Circuit Speed-Limit Alert schematics Circuit Electronics,
This circuit has been designed to alert the vehicle driver that he/she has reached the maximum fixed speed limit (i.e. in a motorway). It eliminates the necessity of looking at the tachometer and to be distracted from driving. There is a strict relation between engine's RPM and vehicle speed, so this device controls RPM, starting to beep and flashing a LED once per second, when maximum fixed speed is reached. Its outstanding feature lies in the fact that no connection is required from circuit to engine.


R1,R2,R19_______1K 1/4W Resistors
R3-R6,R13,R17_100K 1/4W Resistors
R7,R15__________1M 1/4W Resistors
R8_____________50K 1/2W Trimmer Cermet
R9____________470R 1/4W Resistor
R10___________470K 1/4W Resistor
R11___________100K 1/2W Trimmer Cermet (see notes)
R12___________220K 1/4W Resistor (see notes)
R14,R16________68K 1/4W Resistors
R18____________22K 1/4W Resistor
R20___________150R 1/4W Resistor (see notes)
C1,C7_________100µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitors
C2,C3_________330nF 63V Polyester Capacitors
C4-C6___________4µ7 25V Electrolytic Capacitors
D1,D5______Red LEDs 3 or 5mm.
D2,D3________1N4148 75V 150mA Diodes
D4________BZX79C7V5 7.5V 500mW Zener Diode
IC1__________CA3140 or TL061 Op-amp IC
IC2____________4069 Hex Inverter IC
IC3____________4098 or 4528 Dual Monostable Multivibrator IC
Q1,Q2_________BC238 25V 100mA NPN Transistors
L1_____________10mH miniature Inductor (see notes)
BZ1___________Piezo sounder (incorporating 3KHz oscillator)
SW1____________SPST Slider switch
B1_______________9V PP3 battery (see notes) Clip for PP3 battery

Circuit operation:

IC1 forms a differential amplifier for the electromagnetic pulses generated by the engine sparking-plugs, picked-up by sensor coil L1. IC2A further amplifies the pulses and IC2B to IC2F inverters provide clean pulse squaring. The monostable multivibrator IC3A is used as a frequency discriminator, its pin 6 going firmly high when speed limit (settled by R11) is reached. IC3B, the transistors and associate components provide timings for the signaling part, formed by LED D5 and piezo sounder BZ1. D3 introduces a small amount of hysteresis.

  • D1 is necessary at set-up to monitor the sparking-plugs emission, thus allowing to find easily the best placement for the device on the dashboard or close to it. After the setting is done, D1 R9 can be omitted or switched-off, with battery savings.
  • During the preceding operation R8 must be adjusted for better results. The best setting of this trimmer is usually obtained when its value lies between 10 and 20K.
  • You must do this first setting when the engine is on but the vehicle is stationary.
  • The final simplest setting can be made with the help of a second person. Drive the vehicle and reach the speed needed. The helper must adjust the trimmer R11 until the device operates the beeper and D5. Reducing vehicle's speed the beep must stop.
  • L1 can be a 10mH small inductor usually sold in the form of a tiny rectangular plastic box. If you need an higher sensitivity you can build a special coil, winding 130 to 150 turns of 0.2 mm. enameled wire on a 5 cm. diameter former (e.g. a can). Extract the coil from the former and tape it with insulating tape making thus a stand-alone coil.
  • Current drawing is about 10mA. If you intend to use the car 12V battery, you can connect the device to the lighter socket. In this case R20 must be 330R.
  • Depending on the engine's cylinders number, R11 can be unable to set the device properly. In some cases you must use R11=200K and R12=100K or less.
  • If you need to set-up the device on the bench, a sine or square wave variable generator is required.
  • To calculate the frequency relation to RPM in a four strokes engine you can use the following formula: Hz= (Number of cylinders * RPM) / 120.
  • For a two strokes engine the formula is: Hz= (Number of cylinders * RPM) / 60.
  • Thus, for a car with a four strokes engine and four cylinders the resulting frequency @ 3000 RPM is 100Hz.
  • Temporarily disconnect C2 from IC1 pin 6. Connect the generator output across C2 and Ground. Set the generator frequency to e.g. 100Hz and trim R11 until you will hear the beeps and LED D5 will start flashing. Reducing the frequency to 99 or 98 Hz, beeping and flashing must stop.
  • Please note that this circuit is not suited to Diesel engines.

Schematics for Speed-Limit Alert Circuit Electronics
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Circuit Li-Ion Battery Charger Schematic Diagrams

Circuit Li-Ion battery Charger schematics Circuit Electronics,
The LP2951 regulator is manufactured by National Semiconductors. The choice of values is from an application note "battery Charging", written by Chester Simpson. Diode D1 can be any diode from the 1N00x series, whichever is conveniently available. It functions as a blocking diode, to prevent a back flow of current from the battery into the LP2951 when the input voltage is disconnected. Charging current is about 100+mA, which is the internally-limited maximum current of the LP2951. For those wondering, this is compatible with just about any single-cell li-ion battery since li-ion can generally accept a charging current of up to about 1c (i.e. charging current in mA equivalent to their capacity in mAh, so a 1100mAh li-ion cell can be charged at up to 1100mA and so on).

 A lower charging current just brings about a correspondingly longer charge time. IMHO 100mA is quite low, low enough that the circuit can be used for an overnight charger for many typical single-cell li-ion batteries. The resistors are deliberately kept at large orders of magnitude (tens/hundred Kohm and Mohm range) to keep the off-state current as low as possible, at about 2?A. Resistor tolerances should be kept at 1% for output voltage accuracy. The 50k pot allows for an output voltage range between 4.08V to 4.26V - thus allowing calibration as well as a choice between a charging voltage of 4.1V or 4.2V depending on the cell to be charged. The capacitors are for stability, especially C2 which prevents the output from ringing/oscillating.

Parts List

IC1 = LP2951, voltage regulator
D1 = 1N4002, General purpose diode
R1 = 2M, 1%, metal-film
R2 = 806K, 1%, metal-film
P1 = 50K, potentiometer
C1 = 0.1uF, polyester
C2 = 2.2uF/16V, electrolytic
C3 = 330pF, ceramic

Schematics for Li-Ion battery Charger Circuit Electronics
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Circuit Lead Acid Battery Charger #1 Schematic Diagrams

Circuit Lead Acid battery Charger #1 schematics Circuit Electronics,
Except for use as a normal battery Charger, this circuit is perfect to 'constant-charge' a 12-Volt Lead-Acid battery, like the one in your flight box, and keep it in optimum charged condition. This circuit is not recommended for GEL-TYPE batteries since it draws to much current. The above circuit is a precision voltage source, and contains a temperature sensor with a negative temperature coλficient. Meaning, whenever the surrounding or battery temperature increases the voltage will automatically decrease. Temperature coλficient for this circuit is -8mV per °Celcius. A normal transistor (Q1) is used as a temperature sensor. This battery Charger is centered around the LM350 integrated, 3-amp, adjustable stabilizer IC. Output voltage can be adjusted with P1 between 13.5 and 14.5 volt.

T2 was added to prevent battery discharge via R1 if no power present. P1 can adjust the output voltage between 13.5 and 14.5 volts. R4's value can be adjusted to accommodate a bit larger or smaller window. D1 is a large power-diode, 100V PRV @ 3 amp. Bigger is best but I don't recommend going smaller. The LM350's 'adjust' pin will try to keep the voltage drop between its pin and the output pin at a constant value of 1.25V. So there is a constant current flow through R1. Q1 act here as a temperature sensor with the help of components P1/R3/R4 who more or less control the base of Q1. Since the emitter/base connection of Q1, just like any other semiconductor, contains a temperature coλficient of -2mV/°C, the output voltage will also show a negative temperature coλficient.

That one is only a factor of 4 larger, because of the variation of the emitter/basis of Q1 multiplied by the division factor of P1/R3/R4. Which results in approximately -8mV/°C. To prevent that sensor Q1 is warmed up by its own current draw, I recommend adding a cooling rib of sorts. (If you wish to compensate for the battery-temperature itself, then Q1 should be mounted as close on the battery as possible) The red led (D2) indicates the presence of input power.Depending on what type of transistor you use for Q1, the pads on the circuit board may not fit exactly (in case of the BD140).

Schematics for Lead Acid battery Charger #1 Circuit Electronics
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Circuit Lead Acid Battery Charger #2 Schematic Diagrams

Circuit Lead Acid battery Charger #2 schematics Circuit Electronics,
The above pictured schematic diagram is just a standard constant current model with a added current limiter, consisting of Q1, R1, and R4. The moment too much current is flowing biases Q1 and drops the output voltage. The output voltage is: 1.2 x (P1+R2+R3)/R3 volt. Current limiting kicks in when the current is about 0.6/R1 amp. For a 6-volt battery which requires fast-charging, the charge voltage is 3 x 2.45 = 7.35 V. (3 cells at 2.45v per cell). So the total value for R2 + P1 is then about 585 ohm. For a 12 V battery the value for R2 + P1 is then about 1290 ohm. For this power supply to work efficiently, the input voltage has to be a minimum of 3V higher than the output voltage. P1 is a standard trimmer potentiometer of sufficient watt for your application. The LM317 must be cooled on a sufficient (large) coolrib. Q1 (BC140) can be replaced with a NTE128 or the older ECG128 (same company). Except as a charger, this circuit can also be used as a regular power supply.

 Parts List:

R1 = 0.56 Ohm, 5W, WW
R2 = 470 Ohm C2 = 220nF
R3 = 120 Ohm
R4 = 100 Ohm
C1 = 1000uF/63V
Q1 = BC140
Q2 = LM317, Adj. Volt Reg.
C3 = 220nF (On large coolrib!)
P1 = 220 Ohm

Schematics for Lead Acid battery Charger #2 Circuit Electronics
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Circuit Micropower Battery Protector Schematic Diagrams

Circuit Micropower battery Protector schematics Circuit Electronics, Protect your expensive batteries from discharge damage with this mini-sized electronic cutout switch. It uses virtually no power and can be built to suit a wide range of battery voltages.

Main Features
  • Disconnects load at preset battery voltage
  • Automatically reconnects load when battery recharged
  • Ultra-low power consumption (<20ma)
  • Miniature size
  • 10A maximum rating
  • Suitable for use with 4.8-12.5V batteries
  • Transient voltage protection (optional)
Suitable for use in...
  • Cars, boats caravans
  • Security systems
  • Emergency lighting
  • Small solar installations
  • Camera battery packs
  • Many other low-power applications
Picture of the project:

Back in May 2002, we (Silicon Chip) presented the "battery Guardian", a project designed specifically for protecting 12V car batteries from over-discharge. This unit has proven to be very popular and is still available from kit suppliers. This new design does not supersede the battery Guardian – at least not when it comes to 12V car batteries. Instead, it’s a more flexible alternative that can be used with a wide range of battery voltages.

In this new "Micropower battery Protector", we’ve dispensed with the low-battery warning circuitry and the relatively cheap N-channel MOSFET used in the battery Guardian in favour of a physically smaller module that steals much less battery power. It costs a little more but can switch lower voltages, allowing it to be used with 6V 12V lead-acid batteries and 4-cell to 10-cell NiCd and NiMH battery packs.

pcb layout:

Most battery-powered equipment provides no mechanism for disconnecting the batteries when they’re exhausted. Even when the voltage drops too low for normal operation, battery drain usually continues until all available energy is expended. This is particularly true of equipment designed to be powered from alkaline or carbon cells but retro-fitted with rechargeables.

Circuit diagram:

Schematics for Micropower battery Protector Circuit Electronics
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Circuit Nicad Charger Uses Voltage Cut-Out Schematic Diagrams

Circuit Nicad Charger Uses Voltage Cut-Out schematics Circuit Electronics,
This circuit charges two NiCad cells with a constant current and features dual charging rates, voltage cutoff and an audible alarm. The circuit is powered by a 12VAC centre-tapped mains transformer, together with two rectifier diodes (D1 D2) and a 1000mF filter capacitor. A 7806 3-terminal regulator is used to generate a 6V rail for the remainder of the circuit. Transistor Q1 and LED1 constitute a basic constant-current source. The forward voltage of the red LED (about 1.5V) minus Q1’s base-emitter voltage (about 0.6V) appears across the 6.8W or 15W emitter resistors, depending on the position of S1. With a 15W resistance in the emitter circuit, the charging current is about 60mA, whereas with 6.8W it is about 130mA.

This is sufficient to charge 600mAH "AA" cells in 14 hours and five hours, respectively. An LM393 voltage comparator (IC1) is used for the voltage cutoff function. Its inverting input is set to 2.9V (nominal) via trimpot VR1, while the non-inverting input senses battery voltage. This means that while the cells are being charged, the output transistor (in the LM393) is switched on, also switching on Q1 and enabling the current source. Once the cells are charged to approximately 80% or more of capacity, their terminal voltages will exceed 1.45V, so the voltage at the non-inverting input (pin 3) of IC1 will exceed the reference voltage on the inverting input (pin 2).

 This causes IC1’s output to switch off, in turn switching Q1 off and disabling the current source. To prevent rapid switching action around the voltage cutoff point, a 100nF capacitor provides feedback between the output and inverting input of the comparator. Four NAND gates are used to build two simple oscillators of different frequencies. When cascaded together, the result is a pulsed tone from the piezo transducer to indicate charge completion.

Editors note:
Absolute terminal voltage is not always a reliable indicator of Nicad battery charge state. Importantly, batteries should never be charged for longer than the manufacturer’s specified period.

Schematics for Nicad Charger Uses Voltage Cut-Out Circuit Electronics
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Circuit Battery Charger Regulator Schematic Diagrams

Circuit battery Charger Regulator schematics Circuit Electronics,
Most off-the-shelf car battery chargers cannot not be left connected to the battery for long periods of time as over-charging and consequent battery damage will occur. This add-on circuit is placed in series with the battery being charged and is powered by the battery itself. In effect, the circuit uses a high-current Mosfet to control the charging current and it turns off when the battery voltage reaches a preset threshold. Power for the circuit is fed from the battery to 3-terminal regulator REG1 which provides 8V.

LED1 indicates that the battery is connected and that power is available. The 555 timer IC is configured as an astable oscillator running at approximately 100kHz. It feeds a diode pump (D1 D2) to generate adequate gate voltage for Mosfet Q3, enabling it to turn on with very little on resistance (typically 14 milliohms). With the Mosfet turned on, current flows from the charger's positive terminal so that charging can proceed. The battery voltage is monitored by 10kO pot VR1.

When the wiper voltage exceeds the conduction voltage of zener diode ZD1, transistor Q1 turns on and pulls pin 4 (reset) low to switch off the 555 and remove gate drive to the Mosfet. This process is progressive so that the cycle rapidly repeats itself as the battery charges. Eventually, a point is reached when the battery approaches its charged condition and the cycle slows right down. Transistor Q2 and LED2 function as a cycle indicator. When the battery is under charge, LED2 appears to be constantly on. When the battery is fully charged, LED2 briefly flicks off (charging) and returns to the on state (not charging) for a longer period.

Schematics for battery Charger Regulator Circuit Electronics
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Circuit In-Car Charger And Switcher Circuit For SLA Battery Schematic Diagrams

Circuit In-Car Charger And switcher Circuit For SLA battery schematics Circuit Electronics,
This circuit was devised to switch power to a Peltier cooler in a vehicle. Power to the load from the vehicle’s battery is switched by a SPDT relay while the ignition switch is turned on and from the SLA auxiliary battery when the ignition is off.

The SLA battery is charged from the vehicle’s battery. When the engine is running, the voltage remains fairly constant, which greatly simplifies the charging circuit. If the SLA battery is fully charged, any further charging current from the vehicle battery is limited by a 3.3W 5W resistor (R1). If the SLA battery is deeply discharged, the voltage drop across this resistor will be enough to bias on PNP transistor Q1. This will turn on P-channel Mosfet Q2 and it will provide further charging current via R2, effectively becoming a 2-step charger.

Since the paralleled resistors (R1 R2) have a lower combined voltage drop, Q1 will receive lower base bias, which in turn will cause Mosfet Q2 to fully saturate. This positive feedback creates a clean transition between the two states and prevents Q2 from over-dissipating by being partially on. The current then will ramp down until the battery is only receiving a trickle charge and the voltage drop across the paralleled resistors is only a few dozen millivolts. Schottky diode D1 prevents the SLA battery from discharging into the vehicle’s accessory circuits when the engine is off.

Two safety devices are included in the circuit, the first being in-line fuse F1 which will prevent serious damage in case of shorts. In addition, a PTC resettable thermistor (RT1) protects the battery from sustained over-currents during the charging phase. It is a 1.85A hold, 3.70A trip device at 23°C. Since it has a positive temperature coefficient, at 70°C, these ratings decrease to 1A and 2A for hold and trip respectively, which can further protect the battery.

Lastly, to protect the SLA battery from deep discharge, a low voltage disconnect is included. This is centred around REG1, a voltage reference configured as a comparator. Its reference (REF) input is connected to a voltage divider, as long as "enable" switch S1 is closed.

Whenever the voltage at REG1’s reference terminal exceeds 2.5V, its anode will be pulled low, biasing on PNP transistor Q3. Q3 provides positive feedback via the 270kΩ resistor and diode D2 to turn on N-channel Mosfet Q4, which allows the load to be powered up.

If the SLA battery voltage drops below 10V, the reference terminal will fall below 2.5V and the anode of REG1 will go high, thereby removing bias from Q3 and turning off Q4 to disconnect the load and prevent deep discharge. LED1 indicates when power is being applied to the load.

Schematics for In-Car Charger And switcher Circuit For SLA battery Circuit Electronics
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