Showing posts with label power supply. Show all posts
Showing posts with label power supply. Show all posts

Electronics 600W 50Hz sine wave inverter test circuit

Circuit 600W 50Hz sine wave inverter test circuit schematics Circuit Electronics,

Here I tested a 600W 50Hz sine wave inverter circuit using push-pull topology instead of full-bridge topology. 2 PIC16F684's were used - one for SPWM and one for charging. 2 microcontrollers were used intentionally as the purpose was to test if I could use the microcontrollers together and use each of them for multitasking. 2 auxiliary transformers are used - one for powering the circuitry when running off mains and one for current sensing. Charging is done with 4 relays that are turned on/off according to input voltage and accordingly connect the input voltage to an appropriate transformer winding/tapping to keep output voltage relatively constant. Switching frequency is 16kHz. The sine table has 32 values.

Here is the complete sine table:

0, 16, 32, 47, 62, 77, 91, 103, 115, 126, 136, 144, 151, 156, 160, 162, 163, 162, 160, 156, 151, 144, 136, 126, 115, 103, 91, 77, 62, 47, 32, 16, //65%

0, 17, 33, 49, 65, 80, 94, 107, 120, 131, 141, 149, 156, 162, 166, 168, 169, 168, 166, 162, 156, 149, 141, 131, 120, 107, 94, 80, 65, 49, 33, 17, //67.5%

0, 17, 34, 51, 67, 82, 97, 111, 124, 135, 146, 154, 162, 167, 172, 174, 175, 174, 172, 167, 162, 154, 146, 135, 124, 111, 97, 82, 67, 51, 34, 17, //70%

0, 18, 35, 53, 69, 85, 101, 115, 128, 140, 150, 160, 167, 173, 178, 180, 181, 180, 178, 173, 167, 160, 150, 140, 128, 115, 101, 85, 69, 53, 35, 18, //72.5%

0, 18, 37, 55, 72, 89, 104, 119, 133, 145, 156, 166, 174, 180, 184, 187, 188, 187, 184, 180, 174, 166, 156, 145, 133, 119, 104, 89, 72, 55, 37, 18, //75%

0, 19, 38, 56, 74, 91, 108, 123, 137, 150, 161, 171, 179, 186, 190, 193, 194, 193, 190, 186, 179, 171, 161, 150, 137, 123, 108, 91, 74, 56, 38, 19, //77.5%

0, 20, 39, 58, 77, 94, 111, 127, 141, 155, 166, 176, 185, 191, 196, 199, 200, 199, 196, 191, 185, 176, 166, 155, 141, 127, 111, 94, 77, 58, 39, 20, //80%

0, 20, 40, 60, 79, 97, 114, 131, 146, 159, 171, 182, 190, 197, 202, 205, 206, 205, 202, 197, 190, 182, 171, 159, 146, 131, 114, 97, 79, 60, 40, 20, //82.5%

0, 21, 42, 62, 82, 100, 118, 135, 151, 165, 177, 188, 197, 204, 209, 212, 213, 212, 209, 204, 197, 188, 177, 165, 151, 135, 118, 100, 82, 62, 42, 21, //85

0, 21, 43, 64, 84, 103, 122, 139, 155, 169, 182, 193, 202, 210, 215, 218, 219, 218, 215, 210, 202, 193, 182, 169, 155, 139, 122, 103, 84, 64, 43, 21, //87.5%

0, 22, 44, 65, 86, 106, 125, 143, 159, 174, 187, 198, 208, 215, 221, 224, 225, 224, 221, 215, 208, 198, 187, 174, 159, 143, 125, 106, 86, 65, 44, 22, //90%

0, 23, 45, 67, 88, 109, 128, 147, 163, 179, 192, 204, 213, 221, 227, 230, 231, 230, 227, 221, 213, 204, 192, 179, 163, 147, 128, 109, 88, 67, 45, 23, //92.5%

0, 23, 46, 69, 91, 112, 132, 151, 168, 184, 198, 210, 220, 228, 233, 237, 238, 237, 233, 228, 220, 210, 198, 184, 168, 151, 132, 112, 91, 69, 46, 23 //95%

//0, 25, 49, 73, 96, 118, 139, 159, 177, 193, 208, 220, 231, 239, 245, 249, 250, 249, 245, 239, 231, 220, 208, 193, 177, 159, 139, 118, 96, 73, 49, 25, //100%

Each 32 values corresponds to one half-cycle of a 50Hz sine wave, each set corresponding to a different duty cycle. The duty cycle varies as the amplitude of the sine wave is varied by adjusting the value of the CCPR1L register. The maximum value of each set of 32 values is set to correspond to a different duty cycle and the other 31 values are in the same ratio to the maximum value for all sets of values. A pointer is used in the main code to retrieve the required set of 32 values for a required duty cycle. The lowest duty cycle is 65% because, for feedback, lower duty cycles are not required. The maximum duty cycle is set at 95% to provide some dead-time and avoid cross-conduction. At the beginning of each half-cycle, one MOSFET is driven according to the duty cycle values retrieved from the table. At the end of the half-cycle and beginning of the next half-cycle, the other MOSFET is driven according to those same duty cycle values. Upon a fault condition (such as low-battery), both MOSFETs are turned off and kept off.

It works as intended and testing was successful. However, it requires adjustments to be made for the final one.

Schematics for 600W 50Hz sine wave inverter test circuit Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Some of my SMPS circuits

Circuit Some of my SMPS circuits schematics Circuit Electronics,
Here are a few of the SMPS circuits I made, employing flyback, push-pull, half-bridge and full-bridge topologies.


 Test setup on verroboard of half-bridge SMPS circuit with SG3525 and IR2110 for battery charging. See description below. This is the verroboard prototype of the circuit built on PCB below.

Offline Half-bridge converter
Input: 160 to 240V AC 50/60Hz
Output: 14.5v 10A (max)
Final test circuit (on PCB) for battery charging. Successful. To be incorporated in SMPS inverter with charger.

The primary side PWM is controlled by SG3525 PWM chip. Frequency of operation is around 50kHz. The output signals of the SG3525 are fed into a IR2110 high-low side driver which drives the 2 MOSFETs (IRF840) configured for half-bridge topology. ETD39 core is used for the transformer. It was wound by hand at home by me. A primary side snubber is used. 2 bulk capacitors (470uF, 200V each) are used for the half-bridge converter.

An auxiliary 50Hz transformer (18V 100mA) is used to provide auxiliary low voltage output, which is rectified, filtered and regulated to 12V with a 7812 to power the SG3525, IR2110 and related circuitry. Since average current is low, voltage difference between 7812 input and output is not too great, the power dissipated by the 7812 is not too high and no heat sink is required.

The output of the ETD39-based transformer is rectified with schottky rectifier STPS3045 and an LC filter is used to filter to pure DC. The output voltage is kept regulated using a zener-optocoupler based voltage feedback loop. The STPS3045 is mounted on a heatsink. The output inductor is the large toroidal inductor beside the 50Hz transformer. It has not been mounted on the PCB.

NTC has been used at the input side to limit inrush current due to charging of the LARGE BULK capacitors at the primary side. A fuse has been used for protection in case of short-circuit.

A 200-ohm resistance is used at the output as "dummy load".

I have designed the PCB myself and have wound the transformer myself, at home.


1A offline flyback equalizer with UC3842
Input: 160 to 240V AC 50/60Hz
Output: 14.5v 1A (max)
Could be used as auxiliary power supply.

The primary side PWM is controlled by UC3842 chip. The UC3842 drives the high voltage MOSFET (IRF840) directly as it has a built-in MOSFET driver. 50k resistor is used for startup from the high voltage DC bus - the UC3842 has built-in zener diode that limits voltage, provided current is low enough.

EE25 core was used for the transformer. I wound the transformer myself.

The output of the transformer is rectified with ultrafast rectifier 31DF6 and capacitor is used to filter to pure DC. The output voltage is kept regulated using a zener-optocoupler based voltage feedback loop.

NTC has been used at the input side to limit inrush current due to charging of the capacitor at the primary side. A fuse has been used for protection in case of short-circuit.

This is one of the oldest SMPS circuits I had made. I made it sometime in 2008.


2A flyback equalizer with TOP-GX
Input: 160 to 240V AC 50/60Hz
Output: 14.5v 2A (max)

The equalizer is based on the dedicated offline-switcher "TOPSwitch-GX" TOP245Y, which contains both the primary PWM controller and the high-voltage MOSFET.

EE25 core was used for the transformer. I wound the transformer myself.

The output of the transformer is rectified with ultrafast rectifier MUR420 and LC filter is used to filter to pure DC. The output voltage is kept regulated using a TL431-optocoupler based voltage feedback loop.

NTC has been used at the input side to limit inrush current due to charging of the capacitor at the primary side. A fuse has been used for protection in case of short-circuit.

This is one of the oldest SMPS circuits I had made. I made it sometime in 2008.


 12VDC to 280VDC DC-DC converter for CFL inverter
Input: 11VDC to 14VDC
Output: 280VDC 60W
Was designed to drive four 15W CFL's from 12V battery.

The primary side PWM is controlled by SG3525 PWM chip. Frequency of operation is around 70kHz. The SG3525 drives the 2 MOSFETs (IRF3205) configured for push-pull topology. EI33 core is used for the transformer. It was wound by hand at home by me. The 2 MOSFETs are mounted on heatsinks.

The output of the transformer is rectified to DC with 4 ultrafast diodes (UF4007) configured as a bridge rectifier. LC filter is used to convert output to pure DC.


 Flyback circuit using TOP-GX

Input: 160 to 240V AC 50/60Hz
Output: 12V 3A (max)

The equalizer is based on the dedicated offline-switcher "TOPSwitch-GX" TOP245Y, which contains both the primary PWM controller and the high-voltage MOSFET. ETD34 core was used for the transformer. I wound the transformer myself.

12VDC to 220VAC inverter (200 to 300W) using SG3525, IR2113 and PIC16F676 with features such as low-battery and overload protection
The primary side PWM is controlled by SG3525 PWM chip. It drives 2 MOSFETs (IRF3205) in push-pull configuration. The MOSFETs drive the transformer. ETD34 core was used for the transformer. The output of the transformer is converted to DC. The high-voltage DC is kept regulated by the SG3525 using direct resistive voltage-divider based feedback. This high-voltage DC is then converted to 50Hz AC using 4 MOSFETs (IRF840) in full-bridge configuration. The quasi-sine signal is generated by the 16F676. The output signals are fed into 2 IR2113 high-low side drivers that drive the MOSFET full-bridge. The 16F676 also monitors the battery voltage for low-voltage cut-out. It also monitors the load current for overload protection.

I made this circuit sometime in 2010 after lots of failure in design and implementation.

Schematics for Some of my SMPS circuits Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Research and Design of Solar Products

Circuit Research and Design of Solar Products schematics Circuit Electronics,

                                  SOLAR CHARGE CONTROLLERS

Circuit 1  - On/Off                                                                                  
Circuit 2 - PWM

Circuit 3 - MPPT
While working at Nice Electrical and Electronics Industries Limited as part-time researcher and circuit developer, I have designed Solar Charge Controllers of different capacity (15A to 50A).

The charge controller is controlled by a 16F690 PIC microcontroller. The microcontroller first senses the input voltage from the solar panel. If the voltage is above 12.6V and below 19V, charging takes place.

Circuits 1, 2 and 3 share similar hardware but the control methodology is different.

The MOSFET is configured as a high-side switch. A charge-pump circuit is set up that boosts the input voltage to a voltage between 24V and 36V (depending on input voltage). The microcontroller provides the PWM signal to the boost stage. The boosted voltage (between 24V and 36V) is used to drive the high-side MOSFET.

Circuit 1 is simple on/off type series pass charge controller. When voltage is between 12.6V and below 19V, the microcontroller turns on the MOSFET and the voltage from the panel is provided to the battery via the MOSFET. The battery voltage is monitored and when the voltage is above 14V, the charging is stopped until voltage falls below 13.7V.

Circuit 2 is PWM based. The microcontroller generates the PWM signal depending on input voltage. The MOSFET is driven based on the PWM signal and the battery is charged. When the battery reaches 14V, charging is not stopped. Instead, duty cycle of PWM is reduced. This acts like "trickle" charging, to keep the battery fully charged.

Circuit 3 is MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) based. The microcontroller generates the PWM signal and drives the MOSFET accordingly, while adjusting duty cycle to "search" for the maximum power point to maximize charging current. The circuit currently works and charges at roughly around the maximum point, although it is not perfect yet. I am still working on this circuit to make it perfect.


                        300W 12VDC to 220VAC SMPS-based Solar inverter


Circuit 1
Circuit 2                         

While working at Nice Electrical and Electronics Industries Limited as part-time researcher and circuit developer, I also designed Solar Inverters of different capacity.

Circuits 1 and 2 are both DC-AC converters. 12V DC is first stepped up to 240VDC using a push-pull converter. SG3525 generates the PWM signal. The high voltage DC is kept regulated.

In Circuit 1, a 50Hz auxiliary transformer is used for output voltage sensing and the voltage output from the 50Hz auxiliary transformer is fed to the SG3525 which uses it to keep the output voltage constant.

In Circuit 2, a voltage feedback loop is designed using TL431 and opto-coupler, eliminating the need for a 50Hz auxiliary transformer.

The high voltage DC is then converted to AC by a full-bridge stage using 4 MOSFETs. The 50Hz signals are generated by the 16F690 microcontroller. The signals are fed into high-low side MOSFET drivers L6385E using opto-couplers so that the low-voltage side (where the microcontroller is) is isolated from the high-voltage side (where the drivers and MOSFETs are). The drivers drive the MOSFETs according to the signals generated by the microcontroller. The output voltage is kept constant as the high-voltage DC bus is regulated by the SG3525.

The microcontroller also senses the battery voltage and shuts off the inverter when battery voltage falls below 10.8V, providing low-voltage protection. The load current is also sensed by the microcontroller to provide over-load protection.

All MOSFETs are mounted on heatsinks for heat dissipation. The transformer, using ETD39 core, was wound by me as tailor-made wound ferrite transformers are not available in Bangladesh.

The entire circuit from concept to design to implementation was done by me as nothing ready-made is available here!

Schematics for Research and Design of Solar Products Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Review LG 55LM8600 HDTVs

Circuit Review LG 55LM8600 HDTVs schematics Circuit Electronics,
All period i make a brand further electronic device with all the newest bells and whistles, I attend to to induce to some extent worried greater than the option of setting the matter up and creating it drudgery such as theoretical. This LG television is fabulous! It took all of 10 minutes to line it up on it’s durable set, and any more 10 otherwise fifteen minutes to own it up and running. 

55LM8600 LG 55LM8600 Review Best Buy LG 55LM8600 Prices
This box comes with vi pairs of 3D glasses with the aim of are small fry, comfy and battery limitless. The HD image is exceptional, and too the color controls are straightforward to master. I had my doubts regarding the conversion of standard jiffy signals to 3D, however the expertise was surprisingly cool; not fashionable all instances, however in several. 

The remote management isn’t button intensive, however is a percentage of sort of a mouse or else a Nintendo controller, with simply a numeral of buttons and a trackball. All you hold got to try and fix is drive to your selection on the menu and induce the internal button. Establishing a connection to my wireless arrangement was conjointly a breeze and with the intention of i was watching YouTube videos by intervals a handful of minutes of launch into my password designed for network access. where I selected to lay this box on the remain motionless it came with, it’s skinny and light-credence weight adequate to mount simply on a block 55LM8600.

It’s tremendously refreshing to search prohibited a invention to produces the foremost of skill throughout a conduct that produces it straightforward to expertise. i might provides it vi stars if I might.

I self-control’t even set off to begin on how impressed i’m with this LG Cinema Screen forty seven concerning. 3D television! however ahead of i acquisition earlier than myself accede to me start with the basics: The box came shipped & packed surrounded by the LG box to you simply can grasp surrounded by the costumer photos on top of- My box was packed well and was terribly straightforward to require unacceptable of the box and organize all the support elements, blue-collar, controller and even the batteries and screws. (The controller did accompany its own batteries, and therefore the stand had screws provided) i’m for the most part impressed with the supplementary plastic/safely grips on the perimeters of the small screen- pro it formed removing it from the box such a allotment easier however as well protected the sides/screen all over goods. correct the stand was in this fashion terribly straightforward, however i might imply responsibility it with 2 people particularly whilst you assemble the 2 body elements of the bracket and afterward got to screw the stand to the television diametrically. 

Hubby was along these lines terribly excited regarding obtaining a brand in mint condition ‘toy’ with the intention of he wished to line up everything himself however after staring by the side of the guide (I fix urge you browse more the manual- even in favor of persons of you who would think in this area manually terribly tech-sense. Hubby is with the purpose of the solitary person in the sphere of our abode who is that the wiz while it involves cables and hooking up in mint condition diplomacy however he was even stunned on a quantity of the items this tube desire make. The physical goes into note regarding a integer of the new hookups (located surrounded by the back- explicitly HDMI to pc and so forth.) with the purpose of he personally found the labor-intensive to transpire terribly aware and even had info that he did not know) he found so as to it might be safer to own me facilitate him with the situate. entire period in support of stand and television setup while not rotary the television on: 10min! This might sound somewhat slow however we be apt to adjusted the screen to suit our viewing pleasure, cleaned sour our tube stand, and got all of our outdoor policy able to survive plugged voguish after we tend to obtain the tube bowed on and happening. we care for to honestly had more or less hassle obtaining our satellite dish operating with the tube- we’ve got DIRECTV w/DVR and possibly will not get some sign from our dish. 

Even once we tend to|a long time ago we look after to|following we} went through the channel search and lineup method we were told so as to ‘rejection Channels’ were found- it wasn’t cultivate we went and thump the input setting deep space and selected ‘HBMI 1′ so as to our satellite dish worked. aside from this snag setup of the television and plus the wonderful wand was calm and painless. The magic wand rings a bell arrived my recall of the Wii remote- as a consequence we be liable to were both treatment to the design and had thumbs down problems calculating it. the sole downside we’ve got with this variety of remote is with the purpose of it’s not compatible with on show universal tube controller. In out of the ordinary vocabulary- we watch over to now must to use two tube controllers to participate our TV. it’s a sorrow since a conclusion of if i would like to normalize the degree I even hold to use this single with the exception of meant for channel changing I even have to use the opposite. however I want establish why you’concerning toothless to induce liberate of the fascination wand during place of the universal controller- for it’s an whole perfectly unlike variety of remote anywhere your hand over moves the controller. longing the lay down-up method of choosing around stage zone, daylight saving and so forth. 

Was terribly straightforward and solely took us a different 10min before a lesser amount of to complete altogether. right your Wi-Fi was terribly unproblematic and it rang a bell in vogue my recollection of formerly I was correct my pc Wi-Fi in support of it resolve carry out an equivalent format. you decide the nickname of your Wi-Fi followed by enter your password and you are completed! it had been with the intention of comfortable! enormously suppose the very reality that this box has in-built Wi-Fi which all my strategy could stay on an equivalent arrangement + to hope against hope all share videotape and photos where being on the network! while i used to be messing around with the all the extras this box will make i used to subsist awfully obtaining the sensation of what did you say? quantity this rang a bell hip my recollection of a pc and after that I ideas: i would like to visualize if I can really pull in stuff from my pc to my box via Wi-Fi… in this fashion I did! I pulled nearly videos with the intention of I had stored on my mac, it had been undemanding and easy! I even pulled some videos that I had uploaded to my mac from a visit I took to facilitate I had shot from somewhat handheld capture on tape camera- and assent to me simply say how wonderful these came in a daze. i used to take place apprehensive so as to they’d take rotten fuzzy due to the dimensions however the image was sunny and at present I want lure up all of my residence videos on top of the massive screen to share and revel into on this contemporary small screen! however to is not all: I will watch all in 3D! awe-inspiring 55LM8600.

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Electronics LM7600 3D/Smart LED TV

Circuit LM7600 3D/Smart LED TV schematics Circuit Electronics, LM7600 3D/Smart LED TV
LG Cinema Screen 47LM7600 47-Inch Cinema 3D 1080p 240 Hz LED-LCD HDTV with Smart TV and Six Pairs of 3D Glasses.

Features and Technical Details :
Size: 47-Inch
Product Features
LG LED Plus backlighting delivers superior brightness, clarity and color detail from the edges of the screen, resulting in an amazingly thin, energy efficient LED TV with local dimming for a higher contrast ratio and deeper blacks.

With LG Cinema 3D technology you can enjoy amazing 3D effects, comfortable lightweight battery free glasses, 2D to 3D content conversion, 3D depth control and a clear picture from virtually any angle.

See sports, video games and high-speed action with virtually no motion blur and in crystal clarity with LG's TruMotion 240Hz technology. Now your TV can keep up with the fastest moving scenes.

LG's Smart TV is a revolutionary, easy way to access limitless content, thousands of movies, customizable apps, videos and browse the web all set up in a simple to use interface.

The Magic Remote makes selecting features on your TV is as easy as the wave of your hand or using the wheel to scroll up and down through menu selections. TV remote clicking is soon to be a thing of the past.

Technical Details
  • Brand Name: LG
  • Model: 47LM7600
  • Display Technology: LED-lit
  • Display Size: 47 inches
  • Image Aspect Ratio: 16:09
  • Image Contrast Ratio: 9000000:1
  • Resolution: 1080p
  • Refresh Rate: 240

Schematics for LM7600 3D/Smart LED TV Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Class-T 30 watt amplifier - Dayton

Circuit Class-T 30 watt amplifier - Dayton schematics Circuit Electronics,
Dayton Audio's DTA-1 has the hub of a serious player into a really portable package. A group-T imperfection lets the DTA-1 crop imaging, dynamics, and sound quality so as to rivals tube amps. Up to 15 watts for every channel is on tap to endorse bookshelf speakers.Dayton <a href='' title='audio circuits'>audio</a> DTA-1 Class T <a href='' title='digital circuits'>digital</a> AC/DC <a href='' title='amplifier circuits'>amplifier</a> 15

Technical Details

  • Palm-size course group-T 30 watt amplifier

  • Battery otherwise AC powered-power supply integrated-instead of picture perfect portability

  • 88% Amp efficiency for longer battery life

  • senior sound quality

Schematics for Class-T 30 watt amplifier - Dayton Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Track the damage capacitors elco with ESR meter

Circuit Track the damage capacitors elco with ESR meter schematics Circuit Electronics,
All technicians must have the same experience that the old models of aircraft generally have several common Elco its dry or down in value, mainly found in many brands of china plane. Eco is dry can cause a variety of disorders that are sometimes difficult to trace or even be able to make certain parts do not work at all, especially if used on a circuit that works at such high frequency SMPS (Switch Mode Power Supply) and the horizontal. Elco dry technicians sometimes make headaches and time consuming when you track the damage.

Many technicians get around this problem by directly replacing all existing Elko, the Elko-regardless of whether Elko is corrupt or not. It is generally quite successful. But sometimes the quality is not good substitutes Elko, so the damaged aircraft back after use for some time. Replace all of Elko is also a problem for yourself if the circuit is improved a lot using Elko. The use of ESR-meter proved to be the most appropriate choice to solve the above problems. We suggest that ESR-meter is a must-have tool for every technician after avo-meter.

Using ESR-meter we've made themselves at a cost of less than 50,000 rupiah we recorded a lot of advantages such as:

  • Elko track damaged by the time more quickly because they do not need to remove the Elko (in-circuit tester) one by one.
  • Elko only replaced damaged
  • Can be used to check the quality of new and used Elko. It is certainly advantageous to utilize part of the former ex-change machine pcb. Sometimes the plane is damaged due to repeated just posted a new Elko was poor quality.
  • Elko that if the check using the ohm-meter sometimes the results are deceptive. Because if you checked with ESR ESR-meter turns his already large.
  • Can be used to check the flyback is short in the primary coil (between the B + with a pin-pin-collectors), def a short yoke, the power tranfo a short primer.
  • To find out if re-chargeable batteries are still good. Re-chargeable battery that is damaged ESR was generally higher when compared to a still good.
  • To keep track of printed lines leaking / short
  • By comparing the capacitors are still good, ESR-meter can be used to check the value of thousands pf capacitor.
  • ESR meter can not be to find Elko leak or short. Fortunately rare short Elko damage.
  • ESR meter to check the fit only Elko with values ​​ranging 0.47uF and above.
Does ESR it actually?Parameters are generally owned by a Elko understood by engineers is the "maximum working voltage" and "capacitance value". In the real case there are several other parameters such as the "maximum working temperature" (85 or 105 degrees C) and "ESR" (Equivalent Series Resistance).Unless the practice is capacitive in Elko also has the characteristics of "resistive" caused by a combination of resistance to the legs, internal connections, plates and electrolyte. Thus form a resistive characteristic ESR, because if it is portrayed as if such be installed in series with the capacitance of Elko.Ideally, an Elko ESR is zero, but in practice this is impossible.Elko High voltage tends to have larger ESR than the low voltage ElkoElko with small values ​​tend to have higher ESR values ​​greater than Elko.Elko 105 degrees (C) tend to have higher ESR than Elko 85 degrees (C).

What Is the ESR-meter?
ESR meter is a kind of ohm-meter that can be used to measure the amount of "resistance" of Elko. Difference if the ohm-meter using a dc current (direct current) to drive the meter, then use the ESR meter ac (alternating current) with a standard frequency 150Khz. As had been explained that ideally Elko its ESR is zero. But this is not possible in practice. Elko good quality 10uF value is close to zero or more generally.

What is the cause of ESR Elko subject to change.
  • The first is caused because of the connection quality is poor constituents. It can be found in Elko Elko New and old.
  • Both are caused due to dry the liquid electrolyte due to evaporate or leak, which can be found at the old Elko. Are the consequences of large ESR Elko turned into?

Consequences of changing the value of ESR Elko
  • Elko is a working principle can be "in-fill and waste of" electric charge repeatedly. Thus ESR Elko-charging current will be passed this exile repeatedly in accordance with the working frequency of the circuit. And we certainly have understood that if bypassed resistor will generate heat flows in accordance with the magnitude of the current strength through resistance value and the corresponding magnitude. Similarly, the Elko with ESR, the greater the greater the ESR value of the heat arising in Elko, and the higher the frequency the greater the heat generated. This heat can eventually cause the electrolyte evaporates into a gas and seeped out, so the value of Elko will turn down. In the specific cases heat can even make Elko explode.
  • On a circuit that works at high frequencies Elko should have zero resistance to the high frequency signal. If the ESR of the resistance turned into Elko is no longer zero, and if the resistance value change is large enough to make the workings of the chaotic circuit.

Our experience with the use of ESR meter in the aircraft repair older model (the old plane), the first one we always do is:
  • Check out all the Elko with ESR-meter at the SMPS, Horizontal and Vertical and immediately replace it if the ESR problem.
  • Check visually (with a magnifying glass if necessary) solder-solder on the SMPS, the output Horizontal, Vertical output, and the CRT socket pcb and soldering again if there appears a problem or suspicious solder it.
  • Both of these were able to eliminate the difficulties that may arise and difficult to trace, so the use of ESR meter can shorten repair time.

How to use homemade ESR meter (calibration)
  • Once the tool is finished
  • Collect some old Elko is still good. Find Elko pcb traces of the plane, made in Japan or Europe the original (former aircraft engine change) because of generally good quality for use as a reference.
  • Grouped on the basis of a value less dar 2.2uF, 4.7uF is less than, less than and greater than 10uF 10uF.
  • Try using the ESR-meter to measure each group, and mark the position of the needle meter on each group
  • These markers can be used as a reference to the appointment of Elko ESR is still good.
  • If the meter needle to deviate less from the reference mark, the mean ESR Elko is not good.

Schematics for Track the damage capacitors elco with ESR meter Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Protectors Circuit on SMPS (power supply)

Circuit Protectors Circuit on SMPS (power supply) schematics Circuit Electronics,
The simplest example SMPS which still uses 3 transistors (C3807, A1015 and power transistors) classic problem that often occurs is: - Problem in the feedback circuit can cause the output voltage B + over so that it can endanger the aircraft as a whole. For example elco erupted, pcb burnt burnt by over-heated, horizontal transistor short.

- Problem on feedback circuits may cause power regulator transistor is damaged due to over current transistor (eg, due to the 47k resistor transistor circuit on the secondary error detector value is delayed).

- If the input ac voltage drops can cause the power regulator transistor is damaged, due to over current transistor If the secondary there is a power transistor short can cause damage over current regulator.

- Protectors are designed to make the SMPS SMPS "reliable will not be damaged" if there are things that go wrong as mentioned above.

Switching Mode <a href=' supply' title='power supply circuits'>equalizer</a> protect Circuit
SMPS Circuit

SMPS circuit using IC systems generally are designed with a surge protector, which include:

  • Over voltage protector (OVP)

  • Over current protector (OCP)

  • Over load protector

  • Short circuit protector

  • Over temperature protector

Schematics for Protectors Circuit on SMPS (power supply) Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Discharge the large electrolytic capacitor load

Circuit Discharge the large electrolytic capacitor load schematics Circuit Electronics,
If the switching regulator fails to work or fail to start, then it is usually of the electrolytic capacitor is storing charge. There are habits of some engineers dumping electrolyte capacitor like this using solder. This is actually a poor habit. Because without them knowing things like this sometimes can lead to broken solder element.

Why this may happen?
Elco CapacitorsElectrolytic CapacitorNote that the voltage on the electric charge of the electrolyte capacitor is 300V. While working voltage 220v only solder element. If the charge on the electrolytic capacitors are still full and the 220u electrolytic capacitors or more then this electric charge can only damage the solder element.

Another bad habit of throwing of the electrolytic capacitor is to download shortkan legs electrolyte capacitor with a screwdriver. It is no possibility of damaging electrolytic capacitor itself, in which connection leg electrolyte capacitor is no risk in it will burn.

How should the dumping of the electrolytic capacitors?
  • Always provide a resistor with a value of about 30k ~ 50k/2w
  • If the correct equalizer to the problem fails to work, then the resistor is normally for a while we solder directly on the legs of of the electrolytic capacitor. And if the problem is ok, the new resistor is removed.

Schematics for Discharge the large electrolytic capacitor load Circuit Electronics
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Electronics 12 Volt DC Power Suplly Adaptor

Circuit 12 Volt DC Power Suplly Adaptor schematics Circuit Electronics,
This series of images you can apply to make an adapter or power suplly with the output voltage (V DC output 12V). equalizer in the only protected by a capacitor as a safety if the equalizer is connected to the load on the circuit.

So I recommend using 35V capacitor with a minimum specification. The security of equalizer to power the more we can menggunakkan transistor TIP, but I have not discussed it. To the diode bridge can be compiled from the 4 then you solder the diode bridge rectifier into one or you can buy a bridge rectifier so that the comb-shaped (sideways) or the box. At least I would suggest using a diode bridge 1 Ampere, in a series of adapters, the bigger the better course of ampere diode current in the circuit. Diodes like toll roads, and current as a car passing by. The larger and the width of the existing highway, the faster the flow of runs and through the circuit.

For the circuit equalizer 5 V, you can change the volt regulator on the type 7805 and 7905. This application applies equally in this series. For variations such as fuse or circuit switch on / off you can try it yourself.
Transformer 18 V + - 1 A minimum CT
Minimum of 35 V + Capacitor

Schematics for 12 Volt DC Power Suplly Adaptor Circuit Electronics
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Electronics DVD Player Circuits

Circuit DVD Player Circuits schematics Circuit Electronics,
However, if this is your aboriginal activity with an HC908 MCU, it is simpler to alpha from a allotment with the user adviser already programmed and known-good hardware, as the bargain M68DEMO908QT4 amateur kit.
gambar skema rangkaian dvd

A QT dent programmed with a tiny user-monitor allows the user to amount appliance programs, abode breakpoints and watch variables with about no aerial for the affairs running. ICD approach requires aloof one pin (PTA0) for abstracts transfer, a pushbutton to accumulate PTA2 ashore during reset, and a atomic interface for the PC consecutive port: see [3] [4] for a ambit schematic (compatible with the DVD-thermometer) and abundant programming explanations.

A actual advantageous affection of the QT MCU is accouterments abutment for one-pin ICD (in-circuit debug), authoritative an adversary accidental for best developers.

The ambit will not add aloof addition cable to the AV tangle: it is array powered. Four AA beef accumulation a absolute of 6 volts. Notably, a voltage regulator is unnecessary, but if you feel afflictive powering chips abutting to their best tolerable voltage you can consistently add one. I begin an electrolytic capacitor an two clarify capacitors are abundant to accommodate apple-pie power.

Timing attention is important to get actual alien ascendancy waveforms: the 1% blueprint for the centralized oscillator is not far from the accurateness of bowl resonators, which are frequently active in best alien controls.

With aloof eight genitalia and a battery, the accouterments can hardly be simpler. Ambit access is a aftereffect advancing beeline from the akin of affiliation of its capital components.

The temperature sensor IC is either a DS1621 or DS1631 (Maxim). This 8-pinner includes a complete agenda temperature sensor/thermostat with I2C output. With the adapted commands, the temperature can be apprehend from the consecutive interface with a affirmed accurateness of 0.5 °C, and a resolution of up to 0.1°C. It does not crave calibration, which is advantageous because you can assurance your thermometer after messing with ice and baking water.

Its pin 3 can assignment as a thermostat, but this affection is bare in this application. Pins 5…7 actuate the low $.25 of the accessory I2C abode (up to 8 sensors can be affiliated in alongside on the aforementioned I2C bus); ambience the access as apparent configures the accessory to acknowledge at abode 0×90.

The MCU is the Motorola MC68HC908QT4, a tiny 8-pin accessory with 4 kB of beam and 128 bytes of RAM. A nice appropriate of the QT is that all of its pins (except power) can be acclimated as I/O, as able displace is affirmed by agency of centralized brown-out circuitry, and a flash-calibrated centralized oscillator provides a analytic abiding alarm source.

Two I/O pins serve as I2C bus abstracts and clock. All QT pins affection programmable pull-ups, so alien resistors on the I2C bus are unnecessary.

Another I/O anchorage drives the IR LED (ports can antecedent up to 25 mA) through a accepted attached resistor. Peak accepted is set to 8 mA, abundant lower than a “real” alien control, because the accessory is advised to accomplish in abutting adjacency of the DVD player.

Rather, boundless LED ability may baffle with added IR accessories in the aforementioned location, e.g. air conditioners, TVs, VCRs, DVD players and others electronics appurtenances frequently begin in homes, offices and shops.

Schematics for DVD Player Circuits Circuit Electronics
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Electronics DC- DC Converter 12V to 24V

Circuit DC- DC Converter 12V to 24V schematics Circuit Electronics,
This simple circuit is a DC-DC converter that converting up 12V source to a 24V. It can be used to run radios, small lights, relays, horns and other 24V accessories from a 12V vehicle with a maximum draw of about 800mA.

DC- DC Converter 12V to 24V

This DC-DC Converter can be used to charge one 12V battery from another, or step up the voltage just enough to provide necessary overhead for a 12V linear regulator. Using one op-amp as a squarewave oscillator to ring an inductor and another op-amp in a feedback loop, it won't drift around under varying loads, providing a stable 24V source for many applications. With a wide adjustment in output this circuit has many uses. 

Parts List
R1-R4,R7-R8 100K 1/4W Resistor 
R5 470 Ohm 1/2W Resistor 
R6 10K Linear Pot 
C1 0.01uF Mylar Capacitor 
C2 0.1uF Ceramic Disc Capacitor 
C3 470uF 63V Electrolytic Capacitor 
D1 1N4004 Rectifier Diode 
D2 BY229-400 Fast Recovery Diode See Notes
Q1 BC337 NPN Power Transistor 
U1 LM358 Dual Op Amp IC 
L1 See Notes 
MISC Board, Wire, Socket For U1, Case, Knob For R6, Heatsink for Q1

DC- DC Converter Notes 
1. R6 sets the output voltage. This can be calculated by Vout = 12 x (R8/(R8+R7)) x (R6B/R6A). 
2. L1 is made by winding 60 turns of 0.63MM magnet wire on a toroidial core measuring 15MM (OD) by 8MM (ID) by 6MM (H). 
3. D2 can be any fast recovery diode rated at greater then 100V at 5A. It is very important that the diode be fast recovery and not a standard rectifier.4. Q1 will need a heatsink.

Schematics for DC- DC Converter 12V to 24V Circuit Electronics
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Electronics Adjustable Switching Regulator Circuit with LM2576

Circuit Adjustable Switching regulator Circuit with LM2576 schematics Circuit Electronics,
The Adjustable Switching regulator Circuit with LM2576 are monolithic integrated circuits that provide all the active functions for a step-down (buck) switching regulator, capable of driving 3A load with excellent line and load regulation. These devices are available in fixed output voltages of 3.3V, 5V, 12V, 15V, and an adjustable output version.

LM2576 IC Package
LM2576 IC Package

Requiring a minimum number of external components, these regulators are simple to use and include internal frequency compensation and a fixed-frequency oscillator. The Adjustable Switching regulator Circuit with LM2576 offers a high-efficiency replacement for popular three-terminal linear regulators. It substantially reduces the size of the heat sink, and in some cases no heat sink is required.

Adjustable Switching <a href='' title='regulator circuits'>regulator</a> Circuit with LM2576
IC Switching regulator Circuit with LM2576

A standard Adjustable Switching regulator Circuit with LM2576 of inductors optimized for use with the LM2576 are available from several different manufacturers. This feature greatly simplifies the design of switch-mode power supplies.

Other features include a guaranteed ±4% tolerance on output voltage within specified input voltages and output load conditions, and ±10% on the oscillator frequency. External shutdown is included, featuring 50 μA (typical) standby current. The output switch includes cycle-by-cycle current limiting, as well as thermal shutdown for full protection under fault conditions.

Features Adjustable Switching regulator Circuit with LM2576 :
- 3.3V, 5V, 12V, 15V, and adjustable output versions
- Adjustable version output voltage range,1.23V to 37V
- Guaranteed 3A output current
- Wide input voltage range, 40V up to 60V for HV version
- Requires only 4 external components
- 52 kHz fixed frequency internal oscillator
- TTL shutdown capability, low power standby mode
- High efficiency
- Uses readily available standard inductors
- Thermal shutdown and current limit protection
- P+ Product Enhancement tested
Schematics for Adjustable Switching regulator Circuit with LM2576 Circuit Electronics
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Electronics 50W car audio amplifier schematic

Circuit 50W car audio amplifier schematic schematics Circuit Electronics,
50W car <a href='' title='amplifier circuits'>amplifier</a> schematicsCar power amplifier uses SI1050GL IC as the main amplifier. The output power 50 Watt 8 ohm mono impedance. Up to 25 Volt DC voltage. with source voltage of this amplifier car battery has to work.

Minimum of 12 Volt battery voltage, less than a sound or audio is issued less than the maximum and less good. You can assemble  this circuit amplifier with a schema like this.

50W car <a href='' title='amplifier circuits'>amplifier</a> system

Part List

R1 = 100K

R2 = 1R

C1 = 2.2uF

C2 = 22uF
C3 = 100uF
C4 = 0.1uF

C5 = 100uF
U1 = SI1050GL
If you want to make stereo amplifier , you must required multiply the two of components.

Schematics for 50W car audio amplifier schematic Circuit Electronics
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Electronics LM317 Simple Audio Amplifier

Circuit LM317 Simple audio amplifier schematics Circuit Electronics,
You most likely know that LM317 IC is applied as an practical provide regulator, but did you know it can be applied as an audio amplifier? This is a Low power Amplifier LM317 Simple audio amplifier Circuit a audio  designed with LM317 that offers a optimum probable 1W audio strength.

LM317 Simple audio amplifier Circuit Diagrams :

LM317 Simple <a href='' title='audio circuits'>audio</a> <a href='' title='amplifier circuits'>amplifier</a> Circuits
LM317 Simple audio amplifier Circuits

Utilization a amazing heatsink for the LM317 IC and modify the 5K various resistor so that you have 4.5V on 10Ω resistor (or LM317 pin 2, Vout).

Schematics for LM317 Simple audio amplifier Circuit Electronics
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